双语学习

2020年4月新闻热词汇总

4月,依旧是疫情防控的一个月。国内疫情风险稳步降低,海外疫情还在发展,我国采取了一系列严防输入的疫情防控举措。本月重点热词有:全国哀悼日、5G消息、粮食安全、就业歧视、零号病人以及北京突发公共卫生事件响应降级。

现场祭扫活动 on-site commemorative activities

4月1日,在国务院联防联控机制召开的新闻发布会上,民政部社会事务司副司长范瑜在回答记者提问时表示,目前“外防输入、内防反弹”的要求不能放松,今年清明除了现场祭扫以外,倡导多样化的祭扫方式。

Nine provinces, including Central China’s Hubei province, have suspended on-site commemorative activities during the three-day holiday from Saturday to Monday, according to Fan.

范瑜表示,湖北省等9省已经决定暂停4月4日至6日期间的清明现场祭扫活动。

She said that some provinces and cities require people to follow strict reservation rules for tomb sweeping.

她指出,还有一些省市要求人们严格遵守祭扫预约规定。

比如有的地方规定,居家或者集中观察期未满的人员是不能预约现场祭扫的(those who are under home quarantine or concentrated observation are not allowed to make reservations for on-site commemorative activities),有关人员要自觉遵守。

预约成功后要按预约时间和规定的人数前去祭扫。

除了现场祭扫外,为了巩固疫情防控成果,今年清明祭扫活动还大力推广非现场祭扫方式。

The Ministry of Civil Affairs encourages people to mourn their ancestors and deceased family members in more civil and eco-friendly ways, such as organizing commemorative activities at home or online.

民政部倡导人们用更加文明环保的方式祭祀先辈和逝去的亲人,比如,居家追思或网络祭扫。

Some civil affairs departments have opened online platforms for commemoration.

一些民政部门已经开通了网上祭扫平台。

Staff members at funeral parlors also offer charity services, for example, helping deliver flowers and send condolences, to reduce risks of infection due to mass gatherings.

殡葬服务机构工作人员也会提供公益性代祭服务,比如,代献花、留言寄语等,以降低因人群聚集而带来的感染风险。

范瑜说,

The control measures may bring inconvenience to the public but we believe that cherishing the health of living people is the best consolation to the deceased.

对清明节祭扫的相关限制措施,大家可能觉得很繁琐,但是我们认为,生者的健康平安是对逝者最好的告慰。

全国哀悼日 national day of mourning

为表达全国各族人民对抗击新冠肺炎疫情斗争牺牲烈士和逝世同胞的深切哀悼,国务院发布公告,决定2020年4月4日举行全国性哀悼活动。

China will hold a national mourning Saturday for martyrs who died in the fight against the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and compatriots died of the disease, according to the State Council.

在此期间,全国和驻外使领馆下半旗志哀,全国停止公共娱乐活动。

During the commemoration, national flags will fly at half-mast across the country and in all Chinese embassies and consulates abroad, and public recreational activities will be suspended across the country.

【单词讲解】

“下半旗”除了可以用这里的flags fly at half-mast表达之外,用flags fly at half-staff也是可以的。为什么会用mast和staff这两个词呢?因为mast本意是“桅杆”,后来也用来指“旗杆”,而staff其实是flagstaff的缩写,flagstaff相当于flagpole,本身就是“旗杆”的意思。

4月4日10时起,全国人民默哀3分钟,汽车、火车、舰船鸣笛,防空警报鸣响。

At 10:00 am Saturday, Chinese people nationwide will observe three-minute silence to mourn for the deceased, while air raid sirens and horns of automobiles, trains and ships will wail in grief.

【单词讲解】

“默哀”比较常用的英文表达是observe (three-minute) silence (for someone)或者pay silent tribute (to someone)。Tribute可以表示“(对死者的)致敬,悼念,致哀”。例如:an obituary tribute(悼辞);此外,tribute还可以表示“颂词”,例如:a birthday tribute(生日祝福)。

 

粮食安全 food security

4月4日下午,国务院联防联控机制就做好疫情期间粮食供给和保障工作情况举行发布会。

有记者提问,受新冠肺炎疫情影响,不少国家开始限制粮食出口,特别是哈萨克斯坦、越南等国开始宣布限制小麦、大米出口。在这种情况下我们身边可能会有些人因为担心食品短缺而进行囤积抢购,请问我国粮食安全总体形势如何?

【词汇讲解】

在英语里,“粮食安全”用food security表示,而food safety则表示“食品安全”。这二者的区别是:food security强调的是确保人们都能得到维持健康生活所需要的粮食,主要跟粮食的供应和人们获取的渠道有关;而food safety强调的是确保人们吃进嘴里的食物在生产、存储和销售等环节都符合卫生健康标准。

China has ample food production and grain reserves despite the novel coronavirus impact, so there is no need to hoard groceries, officials have said.

有关负责人表示,虽然有新冠肺炎疫情影响,但我国粮食产量丰、库存足,没有必要囤积粮食。

农业农村部发展规划司司长魏百刚用四组数字对上述问题进行了回应。

第一组数据,粮食产量。

The country has recorded a long streak of bumper years, with grain output reaching a record of 663.9 billion kg last year.

我国粮食生产连年丰收,去年的产量达到6639亿公斤,创历史新高。

第二组数据,人均粮食占有量。

The per capita output of grain in China has been higher than the world average since 2010.

2010年以来,我们国家人均粮食占有量持续高于世界平均水平。

 

第三组数据,粮食库存量。

The repertory of rice and wheat in the country is enough for the whole population for one year.

小麦和稻谷库存大体相当于全国人民一年的消费量。

第四组数据,我国谷物进口量。

China imported 14.68 million tons of grain last year, accounting for 2% of the total consumption in the country.

中国去年净进口1468万吨,仅占全国谷物消费量的2%左右。

农业农村部种植业管理司司长潘文博在发布会上表示,

China has unveiled a series of "unconventional measures" to stabilize grain production, including setting region-specific grain plantation targets, offering subsidies for farmers and raising minimum prices for state procurement of rice, which secured a good start this year and would ensure stable grain production for the whole year.

今年我国采取了一系列“超常规”措施稳住粮食生产,包括按地区设定今年粮食种植目标,为农民提供补贴,提高粮食最低收购价等,粮食生产有了一个好的开局,能够稳住今年粮食生产。

We have the confidence and determination to hold firm our rice bowl.

我们有信心、有决心端牢中国人的饭碗。

 

健康信息 health information

中国民用航空局、中华人民共和国海关总署4月7日发布关于中国籍旅客乘坐航班回国前填报防疫健康信息的公告。

Chinese passengers who are going to fly from 26 countries, including the United States, Italy and Spain, to China are required to submit their health information prior to boarding the plane, the country's civil aviation regulator said on Tuesday.

民航局4月7日表示,从美国、意大利、西班牙等26国回国的中国籍旅客需在乘坐航班前填报个人健康信息。

具体要求如下:

Passengers who already booked air tickets to China must report their personal information, health status and recent travel history on a daily basis starting from Wednesday via a WeChat mini-program before boarding. Under special circumstances, the information can be submitted with the help of someone else.

自2020年4月8日起,已购票旅客在登机前需要提前通过防疫健康码国际版微信小程序,逐日填报个人资料、健康状况、近期出行情况等信息。特殊情况可由他人代为填报。

Passengers who take the flights during the transition period between Wednesday and April 22 should report the related information every day ahead of their flights. Passenger who plan to fly after April 22 need to report the information daily for two weeks before boarding.

2020年4月8日至4月22日为过渡期。过渡期内乘坐航班的中国籍旅客,应于4月8日起连续逐日填报。过渡期后乘坐航班的,应于登机前第14天起连续逐日填报。

【词汇讲解】

这里的“过渡期”用transition period表示,transition指的是从一种状态转变到另一种状态的过程,即“过渡,转变”,比如: difficult transition from childhood to adulthood(从童年到成年的艰难转变)。另外一个与transition拼写很接近的词transitory表达的是“转瞬即逝的、短暂的”意思,比如:transitory happiness(转瞬即逝的幸福)。

People who do not fill out the information as required will not be allowed to board, and passengers who failed to report it truthfully cannot continue their trip and need to bear corresponding legal responsibilities.

未按上述要求填报的,将无法登机。旅客填报虚假信息,将导致行程受阻,并须承担相应法律责任。

公告中所列国家为:意大利、美国、西班牙、德国、伊朗、法国、韩国、瑞士、英国、荷兰、奥地利、比利时、挪威、葡萄牙、瑞典、澳大利亚、巴西、土耳其、马来西亚、丹麦、加拿大、以色列、捷克、爱尔兰、菲律宾、泰国。

 

5G消息业务 5G messaging service

4月8日,中国移动、中国电信、中国联通联合举行线上发布会,共同发布《5G消息白皮书》。

Falling under the technical name of rich communication services, or RCS, the 5G messaging service is designed to replace current short messages with a system that is richer, provides phone book polling, and can transmit in-call multimedia.

5G消息,其技术名称为“富媒体通信/富通信服务”,旨在用一个更加丰富的体系取代现有的短信服务,可以提供通讯录查询以及通话时多媒体传输。

据介绍,5G消息业务(5G messaging service)是终端原生基础短消息服务的全新升级(an upgrade to the existing standard SMS messaging),依照交互方式大致可分为两类:即个人用户之间(P2P communication),以及企业与个人用户之间的信息交互(B2C reach)。

对于个人用户而言,5G消息将打破传统短信对每条信息的长度限制(no word limits),内容方面也将突破文字局限,实现文字、图片、音频、视频、位置等信息的有效融合(an integration of texts,images, audio, video and location information)。

对于企业而言,5G消息将为其提供与个人用户之间的信息交互接口(interaction between businesses and individuals)。企业可通过文字、语音、选项卡等富媒体方式向用户输出个性化服务与咨询。

With the new messaging service, for instance, consumers don't have to download a variety of mobile apps. They can directly buy train tickets and book flights by sending messages.

比如,使用5G消息后,用户不需要下载各种移动应用软件,可以直接通过消息窗口购买火车票或者预订航班。

此外,5G消息还支持加密传输(encrypted transmission)、图形密码(graphic verification code)等信息交互方式,可提供信息安全保障,保护用户隐私。

简单而言,5G消息是短信和彩信的升级版,可以发送图文、音视频等更加丰富的内容信息;与现有即时通讯类APP的区别是,5G消息以手机号作为用户ID,无需另外安装APP,也无需添加好友或关注企业号码,即可实现消息收发(send and receive messages without friending others or following business accounts)。

The global telecom industry association GSMA has reached a consensus that RCS will become the mandatory function of 5G smartphones.

全球移动通信系统协会已达成共识,5G消息将成为5G手机的必备功能。

The three telecom carriers disclosed in March that they would invest about 180 billion yuan on 5G this year. They will also build 550,000 5G base stations this year.

三大运营商上月透露,他们今年将在5G领域投资1800亿元,年内建设55万个5G基站。

伴侣动物 companion animal

农业农村部近日制订了《国家畜禽遗传资源目录(征求意见稿)》,就畜禽目录向社会公开征求意见。

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has excluded dogs from its draft list of edible terrestrial animals.

农业农村部在这份目录征求意见稿中未将狗列为可食用陆生动物。

The draft has proposed as edible species the 18 traditional forms of livestock including pigs, cattle, chickens and ducks, alongside 13 special species including ostriches, silver foxes and minks.

该目录包括可食用的传统畜禽18种,包括猪、牛、鸡、鸭等,特种畜禽13种,包括鸵鸟、银狐、水貂等。

在针对目录的说明中,农业农村部专门提到,

Excluding dogs – an essential human companion animal – is a common global practice and is considered a sign of civilization.

狗是人类伴侣动物,不将其列入目录是国际通行的做法,也是文明的象征。

今年2月《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命健康安全的决定》发布以来,关于哪些动物能吃,引发了广泛的社会讨论,《目录》的制定意味着这一问题将有官方定论。

农业农村部表示,在目录制订过程中,主要掌握四个原则:

一是坚持科学,列入目录的畜禽须经过长期人工饲养驯化(long-term breeding and taming by human),有稳定的人工选择经济性状;

二是突出安全,优先保障食品安全(food safety)、公共卫生安全(public health safety)、生态安全(environmental safety);

三是尊重民族习惯(respect ethnic customs),考虑多民族生产生活需要和传统文化等因素;

四是与国际接轨,参照国际通行做法和国际惯例(follow global practice)等。

目录里包括的动物有哪些?

目录包括传统畜禽和特种畜禽共31个种,其中传统畜禽18种:猪、普通牛、瘤牛、水牛、牦牛、大额牛、绵羊、山羊、马、驴、骆驼、兔、鸡、鸭、鹅、火鸡、鸽、鹌鹑;特种畜禽13种:梅花鹿、马鹿、驯鹿、羊驼、珍珠鸡、雉鸡、鹧鸪、绿头鸭、鸵鸟、水貂、银狐、蓝狐、貉。

农业农村部表示,列入目录的畜禽(livestock),适用《畜牧法》,由畜牧兽医主管部门管理;目录所列物种的野外种群(wild population of the listed species),以及目录之外的陆生野生动物(wild terrestrial animals),适用《野生动物保护法》,由林业和草原部门管理。

就业歧视 job discrimination

随着湖北地区疫情防控形势好转,各地复工复产进程加速,外出务工的湖北籍劳动者不断增多。但有媒体报道,一些地方出现了湖北籍劳动者受到区别对待、难找工作甚至被无故辞退的情况。

China's top legislature has called on governments to offer more aid to laborers from regions hit hard by the novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak when they return to work to help them overcome difficulties such as discrimination and ensure fair employment and the orderly resumption of production.

全国人大常委会呼吁各级政府为新冠肺炎疫情严重地区的务工人员返岗提供支持,帮助他们解决就业歧视等困难,确保就业公平及有序复工。

全国人大常委会法工委社会法室主任郭林茂今表示:

Labor is a basic constitutional right of citizens, and the Chinese Labor Law is clear on guaranteeing fair employment and prohibiting job discrimination.

劳动权是宪法赋予公民的一项基本权利。我国劳动法律对保障劳动者公平就业、禁止就业歧视作了明确规定。

规定主要包括以下几个方面:

一是就业促进法规定,国家把扩大就业放在经济社会发展的突出位置(uphold the importance of expanding employment in the country's economic and social development),各级人民政府应当创造公平就业环境(ensure employment equality),多渠道扩大就业(expand job opportunities in various ways)。

二是根据劳动法、就业促进法,国家保障劳动者公平就业,反对任何形式的就业歧视。用人单位以劳动者地域不同为由解除劳动合同,也违反劳动合同法相关规定,应承担相应法律责任(employers who terminated contracts on the grounds of employees' place of origin were in breach of the Chinese Labor Contract Law and should bear legal liability)。

三是各级人力资源和社会保障部门依法对用人单位执行劳动法律、法规的情况进行监督检查(monitor whether the applicable laws are being enforced),对违法行为予以制止,并责令改正(deter and correct employers' misconduct)。

郭林茂指出,

People from Hubei, especially those from Wuhan, capital of the province, were tenacious and brave during the outbreak, with strict enforcement of the epidemic control rules and extremely great efforts in fighting the disease, so we need to provide more help for them when they return to work.

在疫情防控战中,湖北人民特别是武汉人民不畏艰险、顽强不屈,自觉服从疫情防控大局需要,主动投身疫情防控斗争,付出了极大努力。我们需要为湖北籍劳动者返岗就业提供更多帮助。

Regional discrimination in recruitment damages laborers' equal employment rights. It is neither legal nor beneficial in consolidating the results of epidemic control work and promoting social economic development.

地域歧视损害了劳动者公平就业的权利,既不合法,更不利于巩固疫情防控成果和促进经济社会发展。

灭活疫苗 inactivated vaccines

国务院联防联控机制科研攻关组表示,我国两款新冠病毒灭活疫苗获得国家药品监督管理局一二期合并的临床试验许可,相关临床试验同步启动。

The two vaccines are China's first batch of COVID-19 inactivated vaccines that have obtained clinical trial approval. Using killed pathogenic microorganisms for enhancing the immunogenicity, the vaccines have advantages of mature production process, controllable quality standards and wide protection range.

此次获批进入临床试验的两款灭活疫苗是我国首批获得临床研究批件的新冠病毒灭活疫苗,是一种杀死病原微生物但仍保持其免疫原性的疫苗,具有生产工艺成熟、质量标准可控、保护范围广等优点。

They can be used for large-scale vaccination, and their safety and effectiveness can by judged by internationally accepted standards.

这两款疫苗可用于大规模接种,并且有国际通行标准来判断疫苗的安全性和有效性。

疫苗对疫情防控至关重要。疫情发生以来,国务院联防联控机制科研攻关组专门设立疫苗研发专班,按照灭活疫苗(inactivated vaccines)、重组蛋白疫苗(recombinant protein vaccines)、腺病毒载体疫苗(adenovirus vector vaccines)、减毒流感病毒载体活疫苗(vaccines using attenuated influenza virus as vectors)、核酸疫苗(nucleic acid vaccines)5条技术路线共布局12项研发任务,目前均在稳步推进。

China has laid a solid foundation for research in inactivated vaccines, which has been widely used to fight hepatitis A, influenza, hand-foot-and-mouth disease and poliomyelitis.

我国的灭活疫苗有较好研究基础,甲肝灭活疫苗、流感灭活(裂解)疫苗、手足口病灭活疫苗、脊髓灰质炎灭活疫苗等均已广泛应用。

这两款新冠病毒灭活疫苗分别由国药集团中国生物武汉生物制品研究所、北京科兴中维生物技术有限公司联合有关科研机构开发而成。

据了解,上述获得临床试验许可的企业具备大规模灭活疫苗生产能力(the capacity for large-scale production),根据国家相关法律法规,已为紧急使用做好准备。

世卫组织“断供” suspend funding WHO

美国总统特朗普4月14日宣布,美国暂停向世界卫生组织提供资金。

US President Donald Trump says he has instructed his administration to halt funding to the World Health Organization (WHO).He said the WHO had "failed in its basic duty" in its response to the coronavirus outbreak.

美国总统特朗普表示,他已指示其政府暂停向世界卫生组织提供资金。他说,世卫组织在应对新冠肺炎疫情时“没有履行其基本职责”。

Mr Trump said funding would be on hold for 60 to 90 days pending a review of the WHO’s warnings about the coronavirus and China.

特朗普表示,暂停提供资金的期限将持续60到90天,在此期间将对世卫组织就新冠病毒及中国疫情发出的警示信息进行评估。

特朗普在白宫记者会上表示:

With the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, we have deep concerns whether America’s generosity has been put to the best use possible. The reality is that the WHO failed to adequately obtain, vet and share information in a timely and transparent fashion.

随着新冠肺炎疫情暴发,我们非常关心美国的慷慨是否物尽其用。现实是,世卫组织未能及时透明地充分获取、筛选及分享信息。

If we cannot trust them, if this is what we will receive from the WHO, our country will be forced to find other ways to work with other nations to achieve public health goals.

如果我们不能信任他们,如果这就是我们从世卫组织得到的,我国就不得不寻找其他途径与其他国家合作来达到公共卫生领域的目标。

 

联合国秘书长古特雷斯对此回应称,世界卫生组织必须得到支持。

António Guterres, the UN secretary general, declared now was “not the time to reduce the resources for the operations of the World Health Organization or any other humanitarian organization in the fight against the virus.

古特雷斯表示,疫情当前,现在不是减少对世卫组织或者任何一个人道主义组织资源支持的时候。

“As I have said before, now is the time for unity and for the international community to work together in solidarity to stop this virus and its shattering consequences,” he said in a statement.

我之前说过,国际社会现在应该团结一致、携手聚力,共同阻止这个病毒及其产生的破坏性后果。

世卫组织的资金来源

WHO’s Programme Budget is financed through a mix of assessed and voluntary contributions. Assessed contributions are the dues countries pay in order to be a member of the Organization. The amount each Member State must pay is calculated relative to the country's wealth and population.

世卫组织的规划预算资金来自评定会费和自愿捐款。评定会费是国家作为本组织会员国交纳的费用。每一会员国交纳的费用按本国的财富和人口状况计算。

Assessed contributions have declined as an overall percentage of the Programme Budget and have, for several years, accounted for less than one quarter of the organization’s financing. The balance is mobilized through voluntary contributions.

评定会费占规划预算的总百分比有所减少,近几年占比还不到该组织资金总额的四分之一。其余资金通过自愿捐款筹集。

However, assessed contributions remain a key source of financing for the organization, providing a level of predictability, helping to minimize dependence on a narrow donor base, and allowing resources to be aligned to the Programme Budget.

但评定会费仍是该组织资金的一个主要来源,它提供了一定程度的可预测性,有助于降低对少量捐助方的依赖,使资源水平能够与规划预算保持一致。

WHO assessed contributions are due and payable as of 1 January from all WHO Member States and Associate Members (currently 194 Member States and 2 Associate Members).

世卫组织各会员国和准会员(目前共有194个会员国和两个准会员)需于1月1日缴付世卫组织评定会费。

Where the total annual assessed contribution for a Member State is $200,000 or greater, that Member's contributions are assessed half in United States dollar and half in Swiss francs, otherwise, contributions are assessed in United States dollars only.

如会员国年评定会费总额为20万美元或更多,则会费一半按美元评定,一半按瑞士法郎评定。如会员国年评定会费总额低于20万美元,会费应全部按美元评定。

The US is the WHO's biggest funder, providing $400m last year – just under 15% of its total budget.

美国是世卫组织最大的资金提供方,去年提供了4亿美元的资金支持,占该组织总预算近15%。

The organization launched an appeal in March for $675m to help fight the pandemic.

上个月,世卫组织曾发起捐款呼吁,希望能为抗击新冠肺炎疫情筹集6.75亿美元的资金。

对于特朗普关于世卫组织没有及时分享疫情信息的指责,美国媒体做了时间线的梳理。

CNBC报道称:

WHO started sounding the alarm on the outbreak of a new coronavirus in China, in mid-January, designating the now Covid-19 pandemic as a global health emergency on Jan 30 when there were just 8,200 cases in 18 countries across the world.

世卫组织1月中旬开始发出警报,称一种新型冠状病毒疫情在中国暴发,1月30日就宣布如今被称为新冠肺炎大流行病的疫情为国际关注的突发公共卫生事件,当时全球只有18个国家报告了8200例确诊病例。

The WHO’s global emergency declaration on Jan 30 was nearly a month before Trump tweeted that “The Coronavirus is very much under control in the USA” and six weeks before he declared a national emergency on March 13.

1月30日,世卫组织宣布国际关注的突发公共卫生事件,过了将近一个月,特朗普还在发推特说,“美国把新冠病毒控制得很好”,过了6个星期,他才在3月13日宣布美国进入国家紧急状态。

Two days earlier, on March 11, WHO officials declared the outbreak a pandemic, when there were just 121,000 global cases.

在此两天前,3月11日,世卫组织官员宣布新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行,当时全球只有12.1万病例。

包机 charter flights

民航局4月15日介绍,国际客运航班调整以来,平均每天入境旅客维持在两三千人左右。此外,疫情发生以来,民航局安排临时航班(包机)赴疫情严重国家接回中国公民。

Sixteen Chinese charter planes flew to Iran, Italy, Britain, the United States and Spain from March 4 to April 13, bringing back home 2,744 Chinese, including 1,449 students studying abroad, Xiong Jie, spokesperson for the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), said at an online press conference.

民航局新闻发言人熊杰在网络发布会上表示,3月4日至4月13日,民航局共安排16架次包机协助在伊朗、意大利、英国、美国、西班牙的2744名中国公民回国,其中留学生1449名。

【单词讲解】

Charter这个词在表示“包租、租用”之意时既可以用作动词,也可以用作形容词,比如:They chartered a boat for deep-sea fishing.或者The charter boat is used for deep-sea fishing.(他们包了一条船用来深海捕鱼。)所以,我们这里说到的“包机”用charter plane/flight或chartered plane/flight都是可以的。

未来几周,民航局将根据国务院联防联控机制部署,及时启动重大航空运输保障机制。

按照国务院联防联控机制的具体部署,执行的重大运输任务主要包括安排临时航班(包机)赴疫情严重国家接回中国公民任务( bring Chinese studying or living abroad back home)、援外医疗专家组(chartered flights to send medical experts to countries hit hard by COVID-19)和相关省份联合工作组包机任务和援非物资运输任务(send medical materials to African countries)三方面。

The CAAC will provide convenience to overseas students in countries severely affected by the virus and who are in difficulties to "help them return home in a step-by-step and orderly fashion.

民航局将按照逐步、有序的方式,对疫情严重国家、确有困难急需回国的留学人员回国提供便利。

Data showed that as of Tuesday, China had sent a total of 575 charter flights carrying 134 medical professionals and working staff and 9,544 tons of anti-epidemic supplies to 64 countries including the United States, Italy and Japan to help them combat the virus.

数据显示,截至4月14日,共执行相关客、货包机任务575架次,运送134名援外医疗专家组和联合工作组人员,运输抗疫物资9544吨,涉及美国、意大利、日本等64个国家。

On April 5, the administration arranged for a chartered flight to transport 37.6 tons of medical supplies to 18 countries in central and western Africa.

4月5日,民航局安排一架次包机运送援助中西非18个国家的37.6吨物资。

消费券 coupons

为活跃消费市场,从4月19日起,武汉市人民政府将陆续向全体在汉人员投放5亿元的“武汉消费券”,以支持全市商贸和文旅行业复工、复产、复市。

The municipal government of Wuhan will hand out the vouchers weekly via the online platforms of Alibaba, Meituan Dianping and Tencent. The above three e-commerce giants will also offer their own coupons worth a total of 1.8 billion yuan, which may be used together with the government-issued vouchers. The first stage of distribution will be from April 19 to May 31, and the second stage from June 1 to July 31.

“武汉消费券”将在阿里巴巴、美团点评、腾讯等3家企业自有线上平台上按周投放,总体投放分两期执行。其中,第一期为4月19日至5月31日,第二期为6月1日至7月31日。阿里巴巴、美团点评、腾讯等3家企业还匹配了总价值约18亿元的消费券,消费者可将“武汉消费券”与3家企业的消费券叠加使用。

【单词讲解】

这里说到“消费券”时用了voucher和coupon两个词,根据《剑桥英语词典》的解释,voucher指的是a piece of paper that can be used to pay for particular goods or services or that allows you to pay less than the usual price for them(可以直接用来购买或者以低于定价的金额购买特定商品或服务的纸质凭证),coupon是:a piece of paper that can be used to get something without paying for it, or at a reduced price(可以免费或者以折扣价格获得某物的纸质凭证)。从这个解释来看,二者意思很接近,基本可以互相替换使用。

如果详细区分一下的话,coupon多指“优惠券”,比如,快餐店推出的15元午餐券、第二杯半价的冷饮券等,消费者拿着这种券去消费的时候,就可以券上的金额购买对应的产品。而voucher多指“代金券”,比如,餐厅推出的消费满300元送50元代金券,下次消费时,这50元代金券就可以直接在结账时使用。

首期“武汉消费券”根据不同消费种类设置不同面额(face value)。

餐饮消费券和超市(便利店)消费券包含10元和20元两种面额,商场消费券和文体旅游消费券包含50元和80元两种面额。

Consumers will be able to use the vouchers for offline payments in restaurants, shopping malls, supermarkets, convenience stores and cultural and tourist sites.

消费者可在餐馆、商场、超市、便利店以及文化旅游点线下消费时使用消费券。

随着国内新冠肺炎疫情得到控制,各地为了扩大居民消费,促进消费回补和潜力释放陆续发放消费券。

So far, more than 20 provinces and cities in China have launched voucher campaigns, worth over 5.6 billion yuan.

到目前为止,国内已有20多个省市发放了价值超过56亿元的消费券。

A survey conducted by Alipay shows that over 10 million businesses have benefited from the nationwide voucher campaigns, with over 90 percent of them being micro, small and medium-sized businesses.

支付宝调查显示,有1000多万家企业从全国各地的消费券活动中受益,其中90%以上为中小微企业。

“未见异常”健康状态 health status of "no sign of abnormality"

Beijing will allow commuters from the neighboring regions of Hebei province and Tianjin to apply for the health status of "no sign of abnormality" in its health mini-program to facilitate their commute, said Li Sufang, deputy head of the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform.

北京市发展改革委副主任李素芳表示,本市及津冀地区往返人员可以通过“北京健康宝”小程序申请“未见异常’健康状态”,为其出行提供便利。

“北京健康宝”是一个方便个人查询自身防疫相关健康状态(health status)的小工具,所有在京及进(返)京人员均可使用。查询结果包含“集中观察(concentrated observation)”、“居家观察(home-based observation)”以及“未见异常(no sign of abnormality)”三种状态,分别用红色、黄色以及绿色进行标识。

近日,依托国家政务服务平台,北京健康宝在原有功能基础上,拓展完成了京津冀往返、商务出行及入境进京等功能。

Those who will be granted the status of "no sign of abnormality" should have stayed in low-risk areas in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region for the last 14 days, are not confirmed cases, suspected cases, close contacts or silent carriers recorded by national or local health authorities, and not under home-based or concentrated observation.

近14日驻留地为京津冀低风险地区的人员,且不属于国家或北京市卫健部门掌握的确诊、疑似、密接、无症状感染人员,及不在北京市居家或集中隔离的人员,可获得“未见异常”健康状态。

获得“未见异常”健康状态的,入住酒店期间,可凭此在多场景有效使用。

在便利商务出行方面,天津、河北以外省市低风险地区来京出差人员,按照北京市酒店入住管理的相关措施,持有7日内核酸检测阴性证明(negative result of nucleic acid test within 7 days),或在酒店进行核酸检测呈阴性并接受酒店健康管理,入住酒店后,依据酒店入住登记信息,可通过“健康宝”申请健康状态。

稳就业 ensure employment

4月21日,人社部举行一季度新闻发布会,介绍了一季度人力资源和社会保障工作进展情况。

To offset COVID-19's impact on the job market, China has taken measures to ensure employment and promote work resumption, according to the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MHRSS).

人社部表示,为了对冲新冠肺炎疫情对就业市场的影响,我国采取了一系列措施稳定就业,推进复工复产。

一季度,人社部积极应对疫情,推动各项政策措施落实落细,实行项目化管理,采取五大措施稳就业,取得了阶段性成效。

一是拓渠道。全面推进复工复产,加快恢复和稳定就业。

In the first quarter of 2020, the ministry has helped over 10,000 central and local key enterprises recruit nearly 500,000 people to ensure the orderly production of medical supplies and daily necessities.

今年一季度,人社部帮助1万多家中央和地方重点企业解决招用工近50万人,确保医疗物资和日常必需品的有序生产。

Meanwhile, the country offered "point-to-point" non-stop transportation for nearly 5.9 million migrant workers to help them return to work.

同时,“点对点”一站式运送农民工近590万人,帮助他们返岗。

二是稳岗位。打出了“免减缓返补”的援企稳岗扩就业政策组合拳。

The ministry exempted employers from 232 billion yuan social security fees by the end of March to reduce labor costs, and handed back another 38.8 billion yuan for the employers' portion of jobless benefits to 3.02 million businesses that didn't lay off workers. Nearly 10 billion yuan were given out in a separate move to encourage employers to hire unemployed people.

截至3月底,人社部免除企业社保费2320亿元,帮助企业削减劳力成本。此外,共发放失业保险稳岗返还388亿元,惠及企业302万户;累计支出就业补助资金近百亿元,支持企业吸纳就业。

三是保重点。高校毕业生,是抓好就业工作的重中之重。

The ministry will further expand employment channels and enhance online hiring services for college graduates, whose number is expected to hit a record 8.74 million this year.

人社部将进一步扩展高校毕业生就业渠道,推动在线招聘服务。今年我国高校毕业生为874万,再创纪录。

四是优服务。就业服务搬上线。

The ministry launched a special online hiring activity, which will last until the end of July, on March 20, offering over 10 million positions for job seekers.

人社部于3月20日推出“百日千万网络招聘专项行动”,该招聘活动将持续到7月底,提供超过1000万个工作岗位。

五是兜底线。失业保险扩面提标。

The ministry opened its national unemployment registration service on March 31.The registration service is for unemployed people of working age who have the ability to work and want to find a job, including graduates and people who have left jobs, the ministry said.

人社部于3月31日开通了失业登记服务,面向劳动年龄内、有劳动能力、有就业需求、处于无业状态的城乡劳动者,包括大学毕业生以及与企业解除或终止劳动关系的劳动者。

Those registered will be able to enjoy free services such as guidance on employment policies and laws, and employment matching. Those eligible for government support, such as unemployment insurance, can apply during the registration process.

登记失业人员将免费获得就业创业政策法规咨询、职业介绍等服务。符合失业保险金领金条件的,可一并办理失业登记和失业保险金申领业务。

The registered urban unemployment rate nationwide, based on the number of people who registered for benefits, was 3.66 percent by the end of March, whereas the urban jobless rate based on surveys was 5.9 percent.

一季度末全国城镇登记失业率3.66%,3月份城镇调查失业率5.9%。

偷井盖 theft of manhole covers

针对近年来时有发生的窨井“吃人、伤人”事件,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部日前联合下发意见,就办理涉窨井盖相关刑事案件作出系统规定,依法惩治涉窨井盖犯罪。

The guideline comprises 12 articles, including punishments of ordinary criminal crimes such as theft and destruction of manhole covers as well as crimes of dereliction of duty related to manhole covers.

该指导意见共有12条,包括盗窃、破坏窨井盖等普通刑事犯罪以及与窨井盖相关的渎职犯罪。

针对第一类犯罪行为,意见规定:

People who steal or damage manhole covers and cause serious consequences, such as people falling in or vehicles overturning, will be deemed as having committed the crime of sabotaging a means of transport, transportation facilities in accordance with the Chinese Criminal Law.

盗窃、破坏窨井盖,造成行人跌落或车辆倾覆等严重后果的,依照刑法的规定,以破坏交通设施罪定罪处罚。

If someone steals or damages manhole covers in crowded places, such as stations, ports, parks, squares, schools or business zones, and the action leads to serious injuries or deaths, he or she may be charged with endangering public safety by dangerous means, the guideline said.

盗窃、破坏车站、港口、公园、广场、学校或商业区等人员聚集场所的窨井盖,致人受伤或者死亡的,依照刑法的规定,以以危险方法危害公共安全罪定罪处罚。

In addition, anyone who deliberately removes or destroys manhole covers despite knowing that the action may cause serious harm to others may be charged with intentional homicide or intentional injury if someone is killed or hurt, the guideline said.

明知会造成人员伤亡后果而实施盗窃、破坏行为,致人受伤或者死亡的,依照刑法的规定,分别以故意伤害罪、故意杀人罪定罪处罚。

针对第二类犯罪行为,意见规定:

Those working in state organs who fail to do their job or abuse their power when engaged in manhole cover procurement, construction, acceptance checks, use and inspection, causing heavy losses to public money or property or the interests of the state and the people, will be punished in accordance with the standards for the crimes of dereliction of duty and abuse of power, said the guideline.

在窨井盖采购、施工、验收、使用、检查过程中负有职责的国家机关工作人员玩忽职守或者滥用职权,致使公共财产、国家和人民利益遭受重大损失的,依照刑法规定,分别以玩忽职守罪、滥用职权罪定罪处罚。

天问一号 Tianwen-1

4月24日,国家航天局在2020年中国航天日线上启动仪式上公布:中国行星探测任务(planetary exploration missions)被命名为“天问(Tianwen)系列”,首次火星探测任务(first Mars exploration mission)被命名为“天问一号”,后续行星任务依次编号。

国家航天局总工程师葛小春介绍,

The name comes from the long poem "Tianwen," meaning Heavenly Questions or Questions to Heaven, written by Qu Yuan (about 340-278 BC), one of the greatest poets of ancient China.

“天问”来自中国伟大诗人屈原的长诗《天问》。

In "Tianwen," Qu Yuan raised a series of questions in verse involving the sky, stars, natural phenomena, myths and the real world, showing his doubts about some traditional concepts and the spirit of seeking the truth.

《天问》是屈原对于天空、星辰、自然现象、神话和人世等一切事物现象的发问,体现了他对传统理念的疑惑以及追求真理的精神。

“天问”这个名字表达了中华民族对于真理追求的坚韧与执着(the Chinese nation's perseverance in pursuing truth),体现了对自然和宇宙空间探索的文化传承(culture of exploring nature and the universe)。

国家航天局同时公布了首次火星探测任务标识“揽星九天”。

CNSA also unveiled the logo of China's planetary exploration missions, featuring the letter C, signifying China, international cooperation and capacity of entering space.

国家航天局公布的我国行星探测任务标识展示了字母“C”的形象,汇集了中国(China)、国际合作精神(Cooperation)、进入太空的能力等多重含义。

China plans to launch the Mars probe in 2020, aiming to complete orbiting, landing and roving in one mission.

我国计划在2020年发射火星探测器,并在一次任务内完成轨道运行、着陆、巡视的任务。

移动互联网接入流量 mobile data traffic

在国务院联防联控机制4月25日举办的新闻发布会上,工业与信息化部信息技术发展司一级巡视员李颖透露,今年3月户均移动互联网接入流量达到近12月以来的最高点。

In the first quarter of 2020, China's mobile data traffic consumption soared 39.3 percent from the same period of last year, Li told the press conference. In March alone, the average household usage of mobile traffic reached 9.5 GB, the highest level in almost a year, reflecting the rapid growth of information consumption, Li added.

李颖在发布会上表示,今年一季度,我国移动互联网接入流量同比增长39.3%。今年3月户均移动互联网接入流量达到9.5GB,为近12月以来的最高点,反映了信息消费的高增长态势。

【单词讲解】

Traffic这个词可做名词或动词使用,用法很多,不过大多数都跟人员、物品、信息、交通工具等的运送、流动有关,比如:上班路上遭遇“堵车”可以直接说I am stuck in traffic,饭店的客流量可以说restaurant traffic,法律打击的“毒品交易”则是drug traffic。在信息技术领域,traffic指的是:the information or signals transmitted over a communications system(通过一个通信系统传输的信息或信号),我们一般称为“流量”。

During the epidemic period, consumer demand for online medical and education services, as well as food delivery and new retail services, posted explosive growth.

疫情期间,消费者对于在线就医和教育服务,以及食品快递和新零售服务的需求呈爆发性增长。

The internet traffic in Wuhan, in central China's Hubei province, during the epidemic period has seen an increase of around 60 to 70 percent compared with that at the end of last year, said statistics from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT).

工信部的数据显示,疫情期间湖北省武汉市的互联网流量比去年年底增长了60-70%。

During the epidemic period, the broadband network plays key supporting roles in social economic operations, and people's production and life. Meanwhile, the internet also faces great challenges from users' growing operating frequency and demands.

疫情期间,宽带网络在社会经济运行及人民生产生活中发挥了重要的支持作用。与此同时,互联网也面临用户不断增长的使用频率和需求的巨大挑战。

互联网领域跨越式发展使居家办公、学习、消费成为可能

China has seen its fixed broadband users exceed 450 million, and the household penetration of fixed internet exceed 91 percent, said the MIIT statistics.

工信部数据显示,我国固定宽带用户超过4.5亿,固定网络家庭普及率超过91%。

The user population of 3G, 4G and 5G mobile broadband has exceeded 1.3 billion, with a household penetration of more than 95 percent.

3G、4G、5G移动宽带用户已超过13亿,家庭普及率超过95%。

Across China, the broadband services have extended to more than 98 percent of administrative villages.

全国范围内,宽带服务以及扩展到98%以上的行政村。

五一假期 May Day holiday

文化和旅游部官网发布旅游提示,提醒广大游客“五一”出游疫情防控不放松,安全文明记心中。

Tourists are asked to pay close attention to the situation of epidemic risks released by local authorities and the latest epidemic prevention and control measures of their destination, according to a statement on the official website of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

文旅部官网发布的提示指出,游客要密切关注各地疫情防控部门发布的疫情风险情况,了解目的地最新疫情防控政策。

Tourists are urged to carry out self-protection measures including wearing masks and washing their hands frequently, as well as keeping their distance from others while taking transportation and visiting parks. The use of serving chopsticks and spoons during meals is also recommended, the statement said.

游客要做好自我防护,戴口罩、勤洗手,在乘坐交通工具、入园游览时,自觉与其他游客保持间距。就餐时使用公筷公勺。

提示同时要求游客避免扎堆,错峰出游。

The statement also asked tourists to learn in advance about ticket reservations and other measures of scenic spots and devise their itineraries to avoid peak times.

提示建议游客提前了解景点的门票预约等措施,间隔入园、错峰旅游。

文旅部提醒游客,自觉遵守旅游目的地和景区疫情防控制度,接受测量体温(take temperature)、查验健康码(check health QR code)、分时限流、保持间距(social distancing)等要求,对于由此产生的排队等待给予充分理解。

此前,文旅部和国家卫生健康委曾联合印发《关于做好旅游景区疫情防控和安全有序开放工作的通知》。

通知要求:

Tourist attractions are allowed to receive 30 percent of their maximum visitor capacity. Paid scenic spots are required to evaluate the results before launching preferential policies for tickets and entertainment programs.

景区接待游客量不得超过核定最大承载量的30%,收费景区在实施临时性优惠政策前要做好评估,防止客流量超限。

Tourist attractions should strengthen management over population flow to prevent mass gatherings. Travelers are required to make reservations and encouraged to visit scenic spots in different time periods.

景区要强化流量管理,严防人员聚集。游客需提前预约,且建议分时段游览。

零号病人 patient zero

Chinese scientists said on Monday that it is very unlikely the novel coronavirus was man-made, and finding patient zero is a formidable task that requires global collaboration to succeed.

中国科学家4月27日表示,新冠病毒是人造的可能性很低,追溯“零号病人”难度很大,需要全球各国携手展开工作。

【名词解释】

“零号病人(patient zero)”往往用来指称第一个受感染的流行病患者(the first person infected with the virus in an epidemic)。确认“零号病人”,对于病毒溯源和疫情防控有着重要价值。

中国医学科学院病原生物学研究所所长金奇说,

Finding the first infected case is an "extremely difficult scientific problem that requires a great amount of interdisciplinary research". Scientists have yet to find patient zero for the 1918 influenza pandemic, HIV or the H1N1 influenza in 2009.

追溯“零号病人”是“非常难的科学问题,需要大量的工作,多学科交叉”。1918年大流感、艾滋病以及2009年暴发的H1N1流感等大规模传染病都没有找到明确的“零号病人”。

中国疾控中心病毒病预防控制所学者刘培培表示,

The increased number of people with COVID-19 antibodies, as well as the existence of asymptomatic patients, are two main obstacles in finding patient zero.

有新冠肺炎抗体的人数增加以及无症状感染者的存在是追溯“零号病人”的两个主要障碍。

If patient zero is asymptomatic or has very mild symptoms, he or she may not have seen a doctor and left a medical record.

如果“零号病人”为无症状或非常轻微的症状,那可能没有去就医,没有留下就诊记录。

China and many other countries are also looking for patient zero. He said he hopes countries can work together to tackle this challenging task.

中国和很多其他国家都在寻找“零号病人”,他希望各国能够携手合作应对这个挑战。

收费公路 toll roads

交通运输部4月28日发布关于恢复收费公路收费的公告。

China's Ministry of Transport announced to restore all tolls across the country from May 6. The move is valid for all toll roads nationwide, including bridges and tunnels, the ministry said in a notice, adding that given vehicles approved by law will continue to be exempted from tolls.

交通运输部发布公告,自2020年5月6日零时起,全国收费公路恢复收费(含收费桥梁和隧道)。与此同时,继续落实法定免费通行政策。

【单词讲解】

Toll这个词可以直接表示“(道路、桥梁)通行费”,所以,没有必要说toll fee,“收费站”就可以用toll gate、toll booth表示,咱们国家一些法定节假日期间小型车辆高速公路免费通行则可以说Most expressways in the country are going toll free for passenger cars with fewer than seven seats during the holiday period. 此外,在有关灾难事故的新闻报道中见到的toll则表示“(伤亡)人数”,比如death toll(死亡人数)、the toll of dead and injured mounted(伤亡人数增加)。

符合《收费公路管理条例》及相关规定的军队车辆(含武警部队车辆)(military vehicles),公安机关在辖区内收费公路上处理交通事故、执行正常巡逻任务和处置突发事件的统一标志的制式警车(police vehicles),悬挂应急救援专用号牌的国家综合性消防救援车辆(fire and rescue vehicles),经国务院交通主管部门或者省、自治区、直辖市人民政府批准执行抢险救灾任务的车辆,鲜活农产品运输车辆(vehicles transporting fresh agricultural products),进行跨区作业的联合收割机和运输联合收割机(包括插秧机)的车辆,继续享受免收车辆通行费政策。

此外,保障疫情防控应急运输车辆优先便捷通行。

Special needs and fast passes will be set up at expressway toll booths, and guidance of on-site traffic order will be strengthened.

高速公路收费站设置专用快捷通道,加强现场通行秩序引导维护。

突发公共卫生事件应急响应 response to public health emergencies

4月30日零时起,北京将突发公共卫生事件一级响应调整为二级响应(lower the emergency response to the novel coronavirus epidemic from the top level to the second level),并相应调整防控策略。

对于响应级别调整,北京市人民政府副秘书长陈蓓介绍:

By the end of Tuesday, 15 of the 16 districts in Beijing had reported zero new local cases for more than 36 days. Chaoyang district, which was listed as the high-risk area for COVID-19 control, has no new local cases for 14 days by Wednesday and will be listed as low-risk area.

截至4月28日24时,北京市16个区中有15个区超过36天无新增本土病例报告。截至4月29日,此前被列为新冠肺炎防控高风险地区的朝阳区已连续14天无新增报告确诊病例,成为低风险地区。

Beijing has been taking strict measures on both domestic and overseas travelers coming to the capital, as well as community control to prevent infection risks, which has proved to be effective. In Beijing, the risk of outbreak has been generally mitigated.

北京采取了严把入京关、境内外人员进京关,以及社区严格疫情防控等有效措施。目前北京疫情防控总体风险可控。

北京调低应急响应级别后,防控策略调整涉及哪些方面?

低风险地区返京不再要求隔离14天

People from low-risk regions of China will not need to be quarantined for 14 days at home upon arriving in Beijing. Those who are undergoing concentrated or at-home observation need not continue.

对从国内低风险地区返京、出差返京人员,不再要求居家观察14天。正在居家集中观察的,可以解除观察。

But the strict management of inbound personnel and those from high- and medium-risk areas and Hubei, the province once hardest hit by the virus, will continue.

不包括境外回京人员,也不包括湖北含武汉地区的人员及国内其他省市高、中风险地区进京的人员。

快递外卖中介可凭健康宝绿码进小区,亲友也可以

Couriers, deliverymen, housekeepers and real estate agents with green health codes will be allowed to enter residential communities, which will remain under closed-off management.

继续实施社区封闭式管理,快递、外卖、家政服务以及房屋中介等服务行业从业人员,持“健康宝”绿码登记后可以进入小区。

Relative visitors will also be allowed if their health codes are green.

非本小区居民持“健康宝”绿码并登记后可进入小区探亲访友。

入住宾馆酒店不再要求提供核酸检测证明

Hotels in Beijing will not require nucleic acid test results from guests, with only a green health code needed to check-in.

入住宾馆酒店的,可凭借“健康宝”绿码办理手续,不再要求提供核酸检测证明。

有序放开公共交通满载率限制

The maximum allowable passenger capacity will be raised from 50 percent of full capacity to 75 percent on buses and to 65 percent on subway trains.

地面公交满载率由50%上调至75%,轨道交通满载率由50%上调至65%。

有序恢复跨京冀公交线路运营

Bus services between Beijing and some areas in the neighboring Hebei province will resume operations in an orderly manner, and inter-provincial long-distance and chartered bus services will gradually be resumed.

有序恢复跨京冀公交线路运营,逐步恢复进出京长途客运班线和旅游包车业务。

暂不开放影院、KTV、地下空间健身所、小区内外棋牌室娱乐室

Libraries, museums and galleries will reopen in an orderly manner with restricted numbers of visitors, and cinemas, karaoke houses and underground gymnasiums and natatoria will remain closed.

有序开放图书馆、博物馆、美术馆等室内公共场所,并实行预约限流措施。但各影院、KTV、地下空间体育健身场所、游泳馆等暂不开放。

户外环境原则上可不戴口罩或根据自身状况决定

Ordinary people can take off their masks in outdoor public venues if they are not at populated sites like school campuses and stations of public transport. Pregnant women, children and the elderly with poor immunity are still advised to wear their masks on if they need to go to public places.

普通人在户外可以不戴口罩,校园、公共交通站点等人员密集场所除外。孕产妇、儿童、老人等体质弱并需前往公共场所的人员仍建议戴口罩。

来源:中国日报

评论

我们不会公开您的邮箱地 必填项已用星号标示 *