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2020年5月新闻热词汇总

5月,长征五号B运载火箭首次飞行任务取得圆满成功;2020珠峰高程测量登山队成功登顶珠穆朗玛峰;全国各类学校陆续开始复课;低风险地区中小学生在校不用戴口罩;欧洲各国开始逐步解除疫情防控封锁政策;全国两会胜利召开。

长征五号B运载火箭 Long March-5B carrier rocket

5月5日,长征五号B运载火箭首次飞行任务取得圆满成功,拉开了我国空间站在轨建造阶段飞行任务的序幕。

The China Manned Space Agency said the flight of the carrier rocket Long March-5B successfully verified the overall design and technologies of the new rocket and also marked the beginning of the third stage in China's manned space program, which aims to put a manned space station into orbit.

中国载人航天工程办公室表示,长征五号B运载火箭首飞成功,验证了新型火箭的总体设计和技术,同时也标志着我国载人航天工程第三阶段——空间站在轨建造——拉开序幕。

【知识点】

1992年,党中央作出实施载人航天工程“三步走”发展战略(three-step manned space program):

第一步,发射载人飞船(manned spaceship),建成初步配套的试验性载人飞船工程,开展空间应用实验。2013年神舟5号载人飞船任务顺利完成。

第二步,突破航天员出舱活动技术(extra-vehicular activity)、空间飞行器的交会对接技术(rendezvous and docking),发射空间实验室(space lab),解决有一定规模的、短期有人照料的空间应用问题。

2017年4月20日19时41分,天舟一号货运飞船(cargo spacecraft Tianzhou-1)成功发射。此次任务是中国载人航天工程空间实验室阶段(space laboratory stage of China manned space engineering)的收官之战,标志着中国载人航天工程胜利完成“三步走”战略中的“第二步”任务,为空间站建设任务奠定坚实技术基础。

第三步,建造空间站,解决有较大规模的、长期有人照料的空间应用问题(operate a permanent manned space station)。

按计划,我国空间站将于2022年前后完成建造,一共规划12次飞行任务。

After the maiden flight of the Long March-5B, the core module of the space station, named Tianhe, and two experiment capsules, named Wentian and Mengtian, will be sent into space.

此次任务后,将先后发射天和核心舱、问天实验舱和梦天实验舱。

During the construction of the space station, China plans to launch four Shenzhou manned spaceships and four Tianzhou cargo spacecraft to transport astronauts and supplement materials

其间,规划发射4艘神舟载人飞船和4艘天舟货运飞船,进行航天员乘组轮换和货物补给。

The assembly of the station's core module has been completed, and the two experiment capsules and the scientific payloads are under development.

目前,我国空间站核心舱已完成正样产品总装,问天实验舱和梦天实验舱正在开展初样研制,空间科学应用载荷已陆续转入正样研制。

The crewmembers to participate in the construction of the space station have been selected and are trained for the missions. China's third batch of reserve astronauts will be selected around July.

执行空间站建造阶段飞行任务的航天员乘组已经选定,正在开展任务训练。我国第三批预备航天员选拔工作也将于今年7月完成。

珠峰高程测量 measure the height of Mount Qomolangma

5月6日,2020珠峰高程测量登山队出发仪式在珠峰登山大本营举行。

A team of over 30 Chinese surveyors Wednesday left a base camp at Mount Qomolangma for a higher spot on their journey to the peak, as they endeavour to accomplish a mission to remeasure the height of the world's highest mountain.

30多名测量队员5月6日从珠峰大本营向更高海拔出发,开启珠峰高程登顶测量。珠穆朗玛峰是世界最高峰。

The team, consisting of professional climbers and surveyors from the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), will seize the current weather window and attempt for the summit at the optimal time.

此次测量登山队由专业登山运动员和自然资源部的测绘人员构成。队员们力争抓住近日的好天气窗口,择日登顶测量。

珠峰高程测量(measure the height of Mount Qomolangma)的核心是精确测定珠峰高度,这同时也是一项代表国家测绘科技发展水平的综合性测绘工程。

此次珠峰高程测量的成果可用于地球动力学板块运动(geodynamics)等领域研究。精确的峰顶雪深、气象和风速等数据(accurate data on snow depth, meteorology and wind speed at the summit ),将为冰川监测(glacier monitoring)、生态环境保护(environmental protection)等方面的研究提供第一手资料。

本次珠峰高程测量工作重点在以下五方面实现技术创新和突破:

一是依托北斗卫星导航系统(the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System),开展测量工作;

二是国产测绘仪器装备(homegrown surveying equipment)全面担纲本次测量任务;

三是应用航空重力技术(airborne gravimeter),提升测量精度;

四是利用实景三维技术(3D Interactive Virtual Reality),直观展示珠峰自然资源状况;

五是测绘队员登顶观测(take the measurement at the peak of the mountain),获取可靠测量数据。

Members of a Chinese surveying team reached Mt. Qomolangma summit at 11 am Wednesday.

5月27日上午11时整, 2020珠峰高程测量登山队成功登上珠穆朗玛峰峰顶。

500米以上建筑 buildings taller than 500 meters

住建部和国家发改委联合下发通知,要求严格限制各地盲目规划建设超高层“摩天楼”。

No buildings taller than 500 meters will be allowed unless their plans are approved by the two central government bodies following strict examinations, said the document.

通知指出,一般不得新建500米以上建筑,各地因特殊情况确需建设的,应进行严格审查后上报住建部和发改委复核。

Provincial housing and urban-rural development departments are authorized to approve construction of buildings over 250 meters in height, though plans for such buildings need to be registered at the ministry.

新建250米以上建筑由省级住房和城乡建设部门进行建筑方案审查,并报住房和城乡建设部备案。

Management will be intensified for construction of big public facilities, including stadiums, museums, exhibition halls and theaters, to prevent imitation in architecture designs.

各地要对体育场馆、展览馆、博物馆、大剧院等超大体量公共建筑进行严格管理,严禁建筑模仿、山寨行为。

同时,各地应加强自然生态、历史人文、景观敏感等重点地段城市与建筑风貌管理,健全法规制度,加强历史文化遗存(historical and cultural remains)、景观风貌保护,严格管控新建建筑,不拆除历史建筑(historical architecture)、不拆传统民居(traditional dwellings)、不破坏地形地貌、不砍老树。

免戴口罩政策 mask-free policy

国家卫健委、教育部日前制定《中小学校新冠肺炎疫情防控技术方案(修订版)》(以下简称《方案》)。

Primary and secondary school students no longer need to wear masks on campuses in areas with a low risk of COVID-19, according to the protocols.

《方案》明确,低风险地区校园内学生不需佩戴口罩。

Teachers of such schools are also allowed to go mask-free when giving class, while it is not recommended for infants and kids to wear masks in nurseries and kindergartens.

老师授课时不需戴口罩,同时,幼托机构幼童不建议戴口罩。

Janitors, sanitation workers and canteen workers are required to wear masks.

校门值守人员、清洁人员及食堂工作人员等应当佩戴口罩。

在控制校内人员密度方面《方案》要求:

Schools, where conditions allow, should ensure that students are seated at least one meter apart from each other.

有条件的学校,应保证每名学生前后左右间距保持1米。

The protocols advised that large classes be divided up into smaller ones, or that students of large classes go to school at staggered hours.

对学生人数较多的班级可分班教学或错时上学。

Dormitories of boarding schools should not be located in the basement, the protocols read, adding that there should be no more than six students allocated to each dorm room.

寄宿学校的宿舍不应位于地下室,同时,每间宿舍入住的学生不得超过6名。

出现疑似感染症状应急处置方面,《方案》要求:

Staff and students should report their health conditions and whereabouts in the last 14 days to the school before returning to campus. Also, schools are required to urge people with symptoms, including fever, fatigue, dry cough or diarrhea, to seek medical help.

教职工及学生返校前应报告健康状况及过去14天的活动轨迹,同时要求有发热、乏力、干咳或腹泻等症状的人员就医排查。

户外120分钟 two-hour outdoor activities

As schools nationwide have gradually reopened following the stabilization of the domestic novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic, the National Health Commission has urged schools to ensure sufficient outdoor activities for students.

随着国内新冠肺炎疫情稳定,全国各地的学校陆续复课,国家卫健委敦促学校确保学生有充足的户外活动时间。

国家卫健委疾控局监察专员王斌指出,

Schools should guarantee at least two hours of outdoor activities a day for pupils. For students who have been diagnosed as nearsighted, the outdoor hours can be extended.

学校应每天保证两小时以上的孩子户外活动时间。对于已经近视的孩子来说,应该更长时间进行户外活动。

It is important to urge children to go outside during recess while making sure that sports activities are rolled out at staggered hours.

学校应确保学生在大课间能在户外活动,同时也要确保错时、错峰开展体育活动。

【单词讲解】

近视的医学专业术语是myopia,但是日常生活中人们通常用nearsightedness / shortsightedness来表示,比如:Tom is nearsighted/shortsighted because he used to play games in darkness whole night long.(汤姆近视是因为他过去经常晚上在黑暗中玩一整晚游戏。)

其他相关的表达还有:远视(hyperopia farsightedness/ longsightedness)、散光(astigmatism )、隐形眼镜(contact lenses)、无框眼镜(rimless glasses)、眼科医生(eye doctor/ophthalmologist )等。

经过这次漫长、特殊的假期,孩子们居家时间多,视力水平估计会受到一些影响。因此,王斌表示,复课后具备条件的学校,提倡对孩子的视力监测和屈光筛查做一些工作。

When organizing mass eyesight screening programs on campus, Wang said outdoor spaces or spacious, well-ventilated facilities are preferred. It is also important to disinfect testing equipment regularly, wear face masks and maintain social distancing during checks.

如果学校要组织集体视力筛查,学校应该尽可能选择在露天场所或者相对比较空旷的体育馆、通风条件良好的场所进行筛查。检查设备要尽可能做到一个孩子一次消毒,学生在检查过程中要戴好口罩,保持安全距离。

此外,对于防蓝光设备可预防近视的社会关注,北京同仁医院副院长、眼科主任魏文斌指出,蓝光分为长波蓝光和短波蓝光,只有短波蓝光(shortwave blue light)才会影响眼睛健康,但这需要长时间、高强度、不间断照射(long-time, intensive and continuous exposure),质检合格的电子产品已经过滤有害的短波蓝光,所以在日常生活中,使用正规厂家生产的电子产品,没有必要加装防蓝光设备。

解封 easing of lockdown

The World Health Organization said on Monday that a slow, steady easing of lockdown measures will be key in stimulating economies while keeping a vigilant eye on the novel coronavirus.The organization had received reports of more than 4 million cases of COVID-19 across the world by Monday.

世界卫生组织5月11日表示,缓慢稳步解除封锁措施将是促进经济恢复并对新冠病毒保持警惕的关键。当日,世界卫生组织接到的新冠肺炎病例报告已超过400万例。

【单词讲解】

Vigilant指“警惕的,警觉的”意思。比如:He warned the public to be vigilant and report anything suspicious.(他警告公众要提高警惕,遇到任何可疑情况都要报告。)常用的搭配有:stay vigilant、keep a vigilant eye on something等。

世卫组织总干事谭德赛(Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus)表示:

Many countries have used the lockdown time to ramp up their ability to test, trace, isolate, and care for patients, which is the best way to track the virus, slow the spread, and take pressure off the health systems.

许多国家利用采取封锁措施的时间来提高检测、追踪、隔离和医治病人的能力,这是追踪病毒、减缓传播和减轻卫生系统压力的最佳方式。

The good news is that there has been a great deal of success in slowing the virus and ultimately saving lives. Strong lockdown measures have come at a cost, with serious social and economic impact and a detrimental effect on many people's lives.

好消息是,我们在减慢病毒传播速度和最终挽救生命方面取得了巨大成功。采取这些严厉措施是需要付出代价的。封锁措施造成严重的社会经济影响,波及无数人的生计。

To protect lives and livelihoods, a slow, steady lifting of lockdowns is key to both stimulating economies, while also keeping a vigilant eye on the virus, so that control measures can be quickly implemented if an upswing in cases is identified.

为了保护生命和生计,缓慢而逐步解除封锁是刺激经济、同时保持对病毒高度警惕的关键,以便在发现病例回升时迅速采取控制措施。

上周末,世卫组织就放松封锁措施发布了进一步指导意见,概述了在解除封锁之前各国应先回答的三个关键问题:

Whether the epidemic is under control,

疫情是否得到控制?

Whether their healthcare system is able to cope with a resurgence of cases that may arise after relaxing certain measures,

医疗卫生系统是否能够应对在放松某些措施后可能出现的病例反弹现象?

Whether their public health surveillance system is able to detect and manage cases and their contacts, and identify a resurgence of cases.

公共卫生监测系统是否能够发现和管控病例及其接触者,并能够识别病例反弹现象?

同时,世卫组织还发布了关于学校和工作场所重新开放的新的指导意见,指出在儿童重返校园的问题上,决策者应该考虑以下一些关键因素:

Having a clear understanding about current COVID-19 transmission and severity of the virus in children,

对新冠病毒在儿童之间的传播状况和儿童感染病毒的严重程度有清晰认识,

Considering the epidemiology of COVID-19 where the school is geographically located,

考虑学校周边新冠疫情是否严重,

Having the ability to maintain COVID-19 prevention and control measures within the school setting.

学校有能力预防和管控疫情。

复课 class resumption

5月12日上午,教育部召开新闻发布会,介绍教育系统开学复课、校园疫情防控情况。

More than 100 million students have resumed classes in Chinese schools as of Monday, accounting for 39 percent of all the students nationwide, from kindergartens to universities, the Ministry of Education said.

教育部表示,截至5月11日,已返校复课的学生总数为10779.2万,超过1个亿,占学生总数的39%。

In most of China's provincial-level regions, universities, secondary vocational schools, middle schools and primary schools are resuming classes, according to the ministry.

在全国多数省级以上地区,高校、中等职业学校、中学以及小学均开始复课。

【单词讲解】

随着新冠肺炎国内疫情缓解,各地都开始进入复工复产复学阶段,而resume这个词恰恰就表示“(中断后)重新开始,继续;恢复(席位,地位或职位)”等意思,其名词形式为resumption比如:resume production/production resumption(复产)、resume class/class resumption(复课)、resume normal life/resumption of normal life(恢复正常生活)等。当然了,做过英文简历的同学大概都知道resume这个词作为名词的时候还表示“个人简历”,这一层意思来自于法语词résumé(简要总结)。

教育部应对新冠肺炎疫情工作领导小组办公室主任、 体育卫生与艺术教育司司长王登峰介绍,

Strict epidemic control measures will stay following class resumption in schools, our goal is to facilitate students' return to schools to the utmost while epidemic control rules are well implemented.

学校复课后严格的疫情防控措施将会持续,我们的目标是在落实疫情防控规定的同时为学生返校提供最大的便利。

对下一步校园疫情防控,王登峰介绍,

We will classify every single person accurately-for example, those who have returned from overseas, people released from hospitals, asymptomatic cases and those from areas with high risks of infection-to make sure that everyone entering the campuses is healthy.

对海外回国人员、治愈出院人员、无症状感染者和高风险地区人员要做到精准分类,确保开学以后进入校园的每一个人都是健康的。

We now have very specific regulations over social distancing among students and teachers and are endeavoring to set up a mechanism to supervise their health conditions and to trace their attendance.

我们对学生以及老师之间的社交距离有非常具体的规定,还将建立健康状况监测以及出勤跟踪制度。

视频连线 video link

国务院总理李克强5月13日主持召开国务院常务会议,部署做好今年全国两会期间各部门听取全国人大代表和政协委员意见建议工作。

Given the need for continued COVID-19 containment, the meeting called for adopting new ways for taking in views and suggestions of national legislators and political advisors, including via video-link, phone calls and the internet. These views and suggestions would help the government to learn more about the situation on the ground, especially the hopes of market players and the general public.

考虑到目前仍处于疫情常态化防控的特殊情况,会议提出要创新听取代表和委员意见建议的方式,通过视频、电话、网络等了解代表和委员反映的实情,尤其是市场主体和人民群众的期盼。

根据全国两会有关安排,会议确定,

Officials of government departments concerned will attend through video link the break-out sessions of NPC deputies to deliberate on the government work report. The departments are required to study carefully and provide feedback to the views and suggestions within their respective purview.

统一安排有关部门通过视频连线,旁听全国人大代表审议政府工作报告的各个小组会议直播,全程听取意见建议。对涉及本部门职责的,各部门要认真研究并作出答复。

The meeting directed each government department to set up a special task force headed by its leading official and a hot-line for national legislators and political advisors operated by designated staff members. Content of these calls should be duly taken down and the subject matters addressed and responded to before the two sessions close.

各部门均要成立由部门负责同志牵头的两会工作专班,设置代表和委员热线电话,安排专人值守接听。对代表和委员来电认真记录,在大会闭幕前予以说明和答复。

The State Council General Office is required to comb through the minutes of the meetings of national legislators and political advisors and carefully study all the views and suggestions concerning the government work. Where actions are called for, the General Office should swiftly bring the relevant issues to the attention of the competent departments, and see to it that replies are made.

国务院办公厅要收集和梳理全国人大、全国政协会议简报中涉及政府工作的事项,认真研究代表和委员提出的意见建议,对需要办理的要及时转交相关部门办理,并督促做好反馈答复。

 

高校毕业生直招士官 recruiting university graduates for non-commissioned officer roles

国防部征兵办公室表示,2020年从普通高校毕业生中直接招收士官工作全面展开。

China's military is recruiting university graduates for non-commissioned officer roles for the first time, according to the recruiting office of the Ministry of National Defense. Online applications will open at the agency's official website www.gfbzb.gov.cn on Friday for those who wish to be enlisted into the armed forces.

国防部征兵办公室今年将首次面向全国普通高校毕业生直接招收士官,全国征兵网(http://www.gfbzb.gov.cn)将于5月15日开通直招士官网上报名窗口。

据了解,士官招收专业涉及计算机、道路运输(road transport)、自动化(automation)、通信(communications)、机电设备(electromechanical equipment)、机械设计制造(mechanical design and manufacturing)、医学技术(medical technology)、语言(language studies)等专业。招收对象为普通高校毕业生(college graduates),所学专业符合今年部队提报的岗位需求,优先招收高校应届毕业生(fresh college graduates)。

国防部征兵办公室表示,

The non-commissioned officers will be recruited simultaneously with the recruitment of compulsory service personnel this year. This will be running from Aug 1 to Sept 30.

今年直招士官工作将与下半年义务兵征集同步展开,8月1日开始,9月30日结束。

【知识点:士官和义务兵有何区别】

我军现役士兵按兵役性质分为义务兵役制士兵和志愿兵役制士兵。义务兵役制士兵称为义务兵(compulsory serviceman),志愿兵役制士兵称为士官(non-commissioned officer)。士官属于士兵军衔序列,但不同于义务兵役制士兵,是士兵中的骨干。义务兵实行供给制,发给津贴(allowance),士官实行工资制(pay plans)和定期增资制度(regular pay rise)。目前部队面向高校毕业生既招收士官,也招收义务兵,这是两个不同兵役性质的士兵系列。(来源:全国征兵网)

心形纪念币 heart-shaped commemorative coins

中国人民银行定于5月20日发行2020吉祥文化金银纪念币一套。

The set includes six coins: two gold, three silver and one gold-silver bimetallic, all legal tender, the People's Bank of China said on its website.

据中国人民银行网站介绍,该套纪念币共6枚,其中金质纪念币2枚,银质纪念币3枚,金银双金属纪念币1枚,均为中华人民共和国法定货币。

Chinese characters Jixiang, meaning auspiciousness, dominates the obverse of the coins, while the reverse sides are decorated with traditional patterns such as cranes, lilies and goldfish, all symbols of auspiciousness and fortune.

该套纪念币正面图案均为“吉祥”文字造型,背面有鹤、百合、金鱼等代表吉祥富贵的传统装饰图案。

值得注意的是,6枚纪念币中有心形纪念币(heart-shaped commemorative coins)两枚,3克心形金质纪念币背面图案为新娘、百合、窗棂等组合图案,并刊“百年好合”字样及面额;30克心形银质纪念币背面图案为百合与同心锁等组合图案,并刊“百年好合”字样及面额。

平均工资 average salary

日前,国家统计局发布2019年城镇非私营单位、城镇私营单位和规模以上企业分岗位就业人员年平均工资情况。

In non-private sectors, urban employees' inflation-adjusted real growth of the average salary rose by 6.8 percent to 90,501 yuan, according to data from the National Bureau of Statistics.

国家统计局的数据显示,全国城镇非私营单位就业人员年平均工资为90501元,根据通胀调整后比上年实际增长6.8%。

In private sectors, the annual average salary stood at 53,604 yuan, up 5.2 percent year on year after deducting price factors.

城镇私营单位就业人员年平均工资为53604元,扣除价格因素后比上年实际增长5.2%。

国家统计局人口和就业统计司副司长孟灿文说,2019年,我国经济运行总体平稳、稳中有进(achieve stability with steady progress),就业形势保持稳定(stable employment situation),全国城镇单位就业人员平均工资稳步增长。

哪些行业工资高?

在非私营单位中,共有6个行业年平均收入超过10万元,包括信息传输、软件和信息技术服务业(information transmission, software and information technology service),金融业(finance),科学研究和技术服务业(scientific research and technology service),卫生和社会工作(health and social work),电力、热力、燃气及水生产供应业(power, heat, gas and water supply),文化、体育和娱乐业(culture, sport and recreation sector)。

哪些行业工资增长快?

Employees engaging in scientific research, higher education and information sectors saw steady rises in their average wage, while workers related to public services and consumption upgrade witnessed faster salary raises.

科学研究、高等教育以及信息行业的就业人员平均工资稳步上涨,与公共服务和消费升级相关的行业平均工资较快增长。

量化指标 quantitative targets

国务院5月19日对外公布2019年《政府工作报告》量化指标任务落实情况表,38项指标任务均已完成。

国内生产总值 GDP

The 2019 government work report set a target of 6 to 6.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) growth from the previous year.

2019年《政府工作报告》提出国内生产总值增长6%-6.5%的目标。

Last year, China's GDP reached 99.09 trillion yuan (about 13.98 trillion U.S. dollars), up 6.1 percent from the previous year, in line with the annual target.

去年国内生产总值达990865亿元,比上年增长6.1%,符合年度预期目标。

 

就业 employment

The report aimed to create more than 11 million urban jobs in 2019 and keep the registered urban unemployment rate within 4.5 percent.

报告提出,2019年城镇新增就业1100万人以上,城镇登记失业率4.5%以内。

Both targets were met, as about 13.52 million urban jobs were created last year and the registered urban unemployment rate stood at 3.62 percent.

去年全国城镇新增就业1352万人,城镇登记失业率为3.62%,完成年度目标。

减税降费 tax cut and fee reduction

The report proposed axing businesses' burden in taxes and social security payment by nearly 2 trillion yuan in 2019. It also aimed to bring the tax rate down to 13 percent from 16 percent in sectors such as manufacturing.

报告提出,2019年减轻企业税收和社保缴费负担近2万亿元,制造业等行业现行16%的税率降至13%。

Last year's tax cut and fee reduction exceeded 2.3 trillion yuan, and the 16-percent tax rate in industries such as manufacturing went down to 13 percent.

去年全年减税降费超过2.3万亿元,制造业等行业现行16%的税率降至13%。

民生 people's livelihood

The report aimed to lift more than 10 million rural people out of poverty, build and renovate 200,000 kilometers of rural roads, and cut the average charge for mobile network traffic by more than 20 percent.

报告明确,2019年减少农村贫困人口1000万以上、新建改建农村公路20万公里、移动网络流量平均资费再降低20%以上。

In 2019, China lifted 11.09 million rural people out of poverty, built and renovated 290,000 kilometers of rural roads, and cut the average charge for mobile network traffic by 41 percent from the previous year.

去年全国农村贫困人口减少1109万人、新建改建农村公路29万公里、移动网络流量平均资费较上年降低41%。

环保 environmental protection

The report set targets that emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides will drop by 3 percent, while chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen emissions will shrink by 2 percent in 2019.

报告明确,2019年二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放量下降3%,化学需氧量、氨氮排放量下降2%。

It turned out that the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides went down by 4.4 percent and 3.5 percent respectively, while chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen emissions shrank by 3.2 percent and 3.3 percent respectively last year from the previous year.

去年全国二氧化硫、氮氧化物排放量分别下降4.4%和3.5%,化学需氧量、氨氮排放量分别下降3.2%和3.3%。

38项指标任务还包括中央财政一般性支出(the general expenditure of the central government)压减5%以上、“三公”经费( spending on official overseas visits, official vehicles, and official hospitality)再压减3%左右等,这些任务均已完成。

行李全流程跟踪 whole-journey luggage tracking

近日,民航局宣布民航行李全流程跟踪系统试点航线试点成功。

China has started a pilot project for whole-journey luggage tracking systems at six major airports, according to the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). These airports include Beijing Capital International Airport, Beijing Daxing International Airport, and Shanghai Hongqiao, Guangzhou Baiyun, Shenzhen Bao'an and Chongqing Jiangbei airports.

民航局表示,我国已经在六家大型机场启动行李全流程跟踪系统试点。这六家机场包括北京首都国际机场,北京大兴国际机场,上海虹桥、广州白云、深圳宝安以及重庆江北机场。

【单词讲解】

在机场提取行李的时候,我们经常会看到baggage claim或者luggage claim这样的标识牌,由此可见这两个词在表示“行李”的时候是可以互相替换使用的,只不过baggage这个词在美式英语中更加常用。此外,baggage这个词还可以用来表示无形的“精神包袱”,比如,emotional baggage(情绪负担)、personal baggage(个人负担)等,而luggage则没有这一层意思。

目前,旅客可以通过上述试点机场官方APP、微信小程序、航显屏和自助查询机等多种途径,对进出港行李进行全程追踪(whole-journey tracking)。旅客只要通过输入行李牌号码、身份证号或扫描行李条码等方式,便可查询到托运(check-in)、安检(security check)、分拣(sorting)、装车运输(truck loading)、装机(aircraft loading)、到达(luggage arrival)等多个行李节点,实时掌握行李轨迹(realtime tracking)。

民航局于2020年1月在上海组织召开了民航行李全流程跟踪系统试点工作启动会,明确了“连点成线、连线成网、逐步实现”的项目实施思路和方案。

According to a three-step plan, by the end of 2021, the CAAC will push forward the application of whole-journey luggage tracking on all domestic air routes in mega airports with an annual passenger throughput of at least 10 million. By the end of 2025, the service will be applied on all domestic air routes, and extend to some international routes, according to the plan.

根据“三步走”战略,2021年年底全国千万级机场间国内航线将实现行李全流程跟踪,2025年年底将实现国内航线全覆盖和国际航线有突破。

As of mid-May, three air routes and six major airports across the country were capable of providing services for passengers to track luggage during their whole journey, said the CAAC.

民航局介绍,截至5月中旬,全国已有三条航线、六家机场(即“三线六点”)能够为旅客提供行李全流程追踪服务。

关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定(草案) a draft decision on establishing and improving the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) to safeguard national security

十三届全国人大三次会议5月21日晚举行新闻发布会,大会发言人张业遂就会议议程和人大有关工作回答了中外记者提问。

According to an agenda unveiled Thursday, a bill on reviewing a draft decision on establishing and improving the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) to safeguard national security will be submitted for deliberation to the third session of the 13th National People's Congress (NPC), which will open on Friday.

根据会议议程,本次大会将审议《全国人民代表大会关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定(草案)》。

十三届全国人大三次会议大会发言人张业遂在新闻发布会上说,

National security is the bedrock underpinning the stability of the country.

国家安全是安邦定国的重要基石。

Safeguarding national security serves the fundamental interests of all Chinese including Hong Kong compatriots.

维护国家安全是包括香港同胞在内的全国各族人民的根本利益所在。

The fourth plenary session of the 19th Communist Party of China Central Committee clearly required a legal framework and enforcement mechanisms to be established for safeguarding national security in the HKSAR.

党的十九届四中全会明确提出:“建立健全特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制”。

The HKSAR is an inseparable part of the People's Republic of China, and the NPC is the highest organ of state power.In light of the new circumstances and need, the NPC is exercising the power enshrined in the Constitution to establish and improve at the state level the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for the HKSAR to safeguard national security, and to uphold and improve the institutional framework of "one country, two systems".

香港特别行政区是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关,根据新的形势和需要,行使宪法赋予的职权,从国家层面建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制,坚持和完善“一国两制”制度体系,是完全必要的。

政府工作报告 government work report

“两个维护”、“四个意识”、“四个自信”、“六稳”、“六保”……政府工作报告里提到的这些缩略语都代表什么呢?

“放管服”改革(简政放权、放管结合、优化服务改革)

streamline the government, delegate power, and improve government services

“两个维护”(坚决维护习近平总书记党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导)

resolutely uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and resolutely uphold the Party Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership

三大攻坚战(防范化解重大风险、精准脱贫、污染防治攻坚战)

the three critical battles against major risks, poverty, and pollution

“四风”(形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风)

the practice of formalities for formalities' sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance

“四个意识”(政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识)

consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment

“四个自信”(中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信)

confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics

“六稳”(稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期)

ensure stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations

“六保”(保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体、保粮食能源安全、保产业链供应链稳定、保基层运转)

ensure security in job, basic living needs, operations of market entities, food and energy security, stable industrial and supply chains, and the normal functioning of primary-level governments

“两新一重”(新型基础设施、新型城镇化、重大工程)

new infrastructure, new urbanization initiatives and major projects

公共卫生领域立法 legislation on public health

受全国人大常委会委托,全国人大常委会委员长栗战书5月25日向十三届全国人大三次会议作《全国人民代表大会常务委员会工作报告》。

China's top legislature said it will prioritize legislation on public health this year.

全国人大常委会表示今年将加强公共卫生领域立法。

In its annual work report, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) said it plans to revise the Wildlife Protection Law, the Law on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, the Frontier Health and Quarantine Law, and the Emergency Response Law in 2020.

全国人大常委会工作报告指出,今年将对野生动物保护法、传染病防治法、国境卫生检疫法、突发事件应对法进行修改。

报告指出:

疫情发生以来,全国人大常委会坚决贯彻党中央决策部署,迅速行动、依法履职,作出关于全面禁止野生动物非法交易和食用的决定,防范公共卫生安全风险,促进社会文明进步。适应国家治理体系和治理能力现代化要求,根据公共卫生领域新情况新问题,部署启动强化公共卫生法治保障体系的立法修法工作,为守护人民生命健康安全筑牢法治防线。回应社会关切,主动宣传解读疫情防控法律,为疫情防控和经济社会发展提供法律支持。

Since the beginning of the Covid-19 outbreak, the NPC Standing Committee has acted promptly and performed its lawful duty while rigorously implementing the decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee. We issued the decision to completely ban the illegal trade and consumption of wildlife, thereby protecting against public health risks and promoting the betterment of society. In line with the requirement to modernize China’s governance system and capacity for governance, and in light of new issues and circumstances in the public health field, the Standing Committee arranged for the enactment and revision of laws to strengthen the system of legal guarantees for public health in order to build a stronger line of defense for the health and safety of the people through the rule of law. We responded to public concerns, actively reached out to the public to clarify epidemic prevention and control laws, and provided legal support for anti-epidemic efforts and economic and social development.

十三届全国人大三次会议大会发言人张业遂表示,

China currently has over 30 laws on public health, which have generally withstood the test of the COVID-19 epidemic and played a positive role. There are still some weak links and shortcomings in the legal framework, and the NPC Standing Committee will further strengthen China's public health legislation.

在中国目前有30多部与公共卫生防治体系有关的法律,这些法律在这次疫情大考中总体经受住了考验,发挥了积极作用,但也存在一些短板和不足。下一步,全国人大常委会的一项重要工作,就是通过立法修法进一步完善和强化公共卫生法制保障体系。

The formulation or amendment of 17 laws is expected to be finished within the year, and 13 others will be updated in due course.

计划今明两年制定修改法律17部,适时修改法律13部。

外国国家豁免法 foreign states immunities law

全国人大代表、北京市社会科学院法学所研究员马一德在接受记者采访时表示,建议尽快制定符合我国国情的外国国家豁免法(foreign states immunities law)。

Formulating a foreign states immunities law will protect the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese citizens as well as foreign investors, said Ma Yide, a deputy to the National People's Congress (NPC) and a law researcher at the Beijing Academy of Social Sciences. It will also counteract malicious litigations raised in countries like the United States towards China over the COVID-19 response, Ma told reporters.

全国人大代表、北京市社会科学院法学所研究员马一德对记者表示,制定外国国家豁免法将平等保护我国国民和外国投资者合法权益,同时对等反制美国等以新冠肺炎疫情向中国提出的恶意指控。

【知识点】

国家主权豁免(state sovereign immunity)是指国家根据国家主权和国家平等原则不接受他国管辖的特权。国家主权豁免是国家平等的必然结果。

一般认为,国家及其财产豁免权(state sovereign and property immunity)的内容包括以下三个方面:

1、司法管辖豁免(immunity from jurisdiction):即未经一国同意,他国法院不得受理以该外国国家为被告或者以该外国国家财产为诉讼标的的案件。

2、诉讼程序豁免(immunity from litigation):即未经一国同意,即使放弃管辖豁免,外国法院也不得对该国财产采取诉讼保全措施,不得强制出庭作证以及实施其他诉讼程序上的强制措施。

3、强制执行豁免(immunity from forcible execution):一国同意在他国法院中作为被告或主动作为原告参加民事诉讼,在未经该国同意时,他国法院不得根据本国判决对该国财产实行强制执行。

在管辖豁免适用范围方面,主要有绝对豁免和限制豁免两种。

绝对豁免(absolute immunity)主张不论一国行为及其财产的性质如何,也不论该国的财产位于何地、为谁所控制,该国及其财产在其他国家法院都享有豁免权,除非该国本身自愿放弃这种豁免权;否则,任何其他国家的法院都无权受理以该国为被告或以该国财产为诉讼标的的民事案件。

限制豁免(limited immunity)则将国家行为分为公法行为(也称主权行为、统治权行为) 和私法行为(也称非主权行为、事务权行为、商业行为) ,并且只对外国国家的公法行为及用于该类行为的国家财产予以管辖豁免,对其商业行为及用于该类行为的财产则行使管辖权。

 

马一德解释说,

The lack of such a law has emerged as a prominent issue in the current epidemic as some countries, led by the United States, tried to shift the blame for their own governments' incompetence on COVID-19 response.

这一问题在此次疫情中尤为凸显,以美国为首的部分国家试图转嫁本国政府防疫、控疫不力的责任。

Some groups and individuals in some countries even cited the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of the United States to bring litigations to the Chinese government and relevant departments.

甚至一些国家的团体或个人依据美国的外国主权豁免法对我国政府和相关部门提起诉讼。

"This has trampled on the internationally recognized principle of sovereign immunity, and is also a show of hegemony and power politics," Ma said, stressing the necessity and urgency for China to formulate a foreign states immunities law.

这既是对国家及其财产豁免这一国际法原则的践踏,也是国际霸权与强权主义的体现,但同时凸显出我国制定外国国家豁免法的必要性、紧迫性。

China follows the principle of absolute immunity of foreign states and their property, thus Chinese litigants are unable to sue foreign governments from domestic courts, while Chinese governments have often been sued in foreign courts, he added.

遵循外国国家及其财产绝对豁免的一般原则,我国当事人难以在国内法院对他国提起诉讼主张权益,我国政府却作为被告在外国法院被频频起诉。

马一德表示,在新形势下,建议重新对国家豁免问题进行审视,由绝对豁免原则转向国际主流的限制豁免原则,尽快制定符合我国国情的国家豁免法。

From a long-term perspective, adopting a limited immunities principle will show a responsible manner of the Chinese government to foreign investors, ensure stable expectations for the protection of their investments, and facilitate China's new round of opening-up and the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, he said.

长远来看,采取限制豁免原则将向外国投资者展示中国政府负责任的态度,为保护其投资提供稳定预期,助力我国新一轮对外开放、‘一带一路’倡议深化发展。

据了解,在当前错综复杂国际形势和疫情防控常态化背景下,这一建议一经提出就获得了代表们的理解、认同和支持,北京代表团代表中超过35人联名签署并提交该议案。该议案目前已被大会议案组接收并分送有关专门委员会研究。

绿色通道 green channel

中国民航局于5月25日下发了《关于建立复产复工国际客运包机计划审批“绿色通道”的通知》。

The country's top civil aviation authority said it has set up a "green channel" to streamline the approval procedure for chartered international passenger flights that are out of work-resumption purposes.

民航局表示,已针对复产复工国际客运包机建立“绿色通道”,优化工作流程。

通知表示,中外航空公司的国际客运包机(chartered international passenger flights)应取得不定期飞行航班许可(license to operate a non-scheduled international service),暂不需时刻协调。各航空公司在申请不定期飞行航班许可的同时,即可向运行监控中心提交相关预先飞行计划(pre-flight plan)申请。运行监控中心根据不定期飞行航班许可内容,尽快受理并发布预先飞行计划。

对于不定期飞行航班许可申请,申请时限由原来的提前7个工作日调整为提前3个工作日,系统受理时间7×24小时(the application system is accessible 24/7)。

其实,民航局此前已对客货运航班申请设立了相关绿色通道。

客运方面,民航局早在今年2月即开设了复工复产绿色通道。货运方面,今年4月3日,民航局下发了《关于疫情防控期间国际航空货运建立审批“绿色通道”的通知》,对国际货运航班(international cargo flights)计划管理工作程序进行临时性调整,建立“绿色通道”,进一步优化工作流程(optimize procedure)、缩短办理时间,促进国际货运航班计划审批顺畅高效。

此外,我国还与多个国家开通“快捷通道”。

China has recently opened a "fast-track lane" with several countries for essential personnel on urgent visits in the areas of commerce, logistics, production and technological services.

中国近期与多个国家开通“快捷通道”,为重要商务、物流、生产、技术服务等急需人员往来提供方便。

 

民法典 the Civil Code

十三届全国人大三次会议以2879票赞成、2票反对、5票弃权,高票表决通过《中华人民共和国民法典》。

In addition to general and supplementary provisions, the Civil Code includes six parts on real rights, contracts, personality rights, marriage and family, inheritance, and tort liabilities.

除总则和附则之外,《民法典》包括物权、合同、人格权、婚姻家庭、继承、侵权责任这六编。

The personal rights, property rights and other lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations shall be protected by law and shall not be infringed upon by any organization or individual, reads the Civil Code in its opening chapter.

《民法典》在总则部分明确,民事主体的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织和个人不得侵犯。

保护人格尊严

The part on personality rights includes provisions on a civil subject's rights to life, body, health, name, portrait, reputation and privacy, among others.

人格权编包括民事主体享有的生命权、身体权、健康权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、隐私权等权利。

The part features stipulations on regulating studies related to human genes or embryos, strengthening privacy protection, banning sexual harassment, and other prominent issues of public concern.

人格权编还对严格规范与人体基因、人体胚胎等有关的科研活动,加强隐私保护,禁止性骚扰,以及其他公众关注的重要问题进行了规定。

适应新的实际情况

Data and online virtual assets are also legally protected, according to the Civil Code.

《民法典》规定,数据及网络虚拟财产也受法律保护。

Personal information includes an individual's name, birthdate, identity card number, fingerprints, home address and phone number, as well as email addresses and location data.

个人信息的范围包括自然人的姓名、出生日期、身份证件号码、个人生物识别信息、住址、电话号码,以及电子邮箱地址和行踪信息。

此外,《民法典》还对紧急情况下保护个人权利的条款做了微调。

For example, if the guardian of a child is unable to perform his or her duties due to emergencies like being put under medical isolation, primary-level Party committees or civil affairs authorities must take over the guardianship, according to the code.

比如,儿童的监护人在医学隔离等紧急情况下无法履行监护责任的,基层党委或民政部门必须承担起监护责任。

Lawmakers say drafting the code is not about formulating a new civil law but rather systematically incorporating existing civil laws and regulations, modifying and improving them to adapt to new situations while maintaining their consistency.

人大代表们表示,起草《民法典》并不是制定一部新的民法,而是将现有的民事法律法规进行系统整合,在保持其一致性的前提下,根据新形势进行修订和完善。

The Civil Code will take effect on Jan 1, 2021.

《民法典》自2021年1月1日起施行。

来源:中国日报

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