双语学习

2020年6月新闻热词汇总

6月,我国南方多地进入汛期,强降雨导致的洪涝灾害导致26个省(区、市)1300多万人次受灾;武汉公布全面核酸检测结果;北京出现本土传播新疫情,对三类人群实行出行管控;民航局对入境航班实施航班奖励和熔断措施;中新“快捷通道”启动;抗疫特别国债上市发行;夏至当日巧遇“金边日环食”;北斗三号最后一颗全球组网卫星发射成功;商合杭高铁全线贯通。

未成年人司法保护 judicial protection work of minors

6月1日,最高人民检察院发布《未成年人检察工作白皮书(2014—2019)》。

The number of crimes committed by minors has rebounded in the last two years, and the number of crimes against minors is also increasing, according to a white paper released by the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Monday.

最高人民检察院发布的白皮书显示,近两年,未成年人犯罪数量有所回升、侵害未成年人犯罪数量呈上升态势。

The white book reviewed judicial protection work of minors from 2014 to 2019.

白皮书全面梳理总结了2014至2019年全国检察机关未成年人司法保护工作。

【单词讲解】

Minor这个词用法很多,可以用作动词、名词和形容词。在法律上,minor指未满18岁的人,即“未成年人”。在学校里,minor可以指“辅修(课程)”或者“辅修生”,与major(专业)相对,比如,I'm minoring in computer science./Computer science is my minor.(我辅修计算机科学。)用作形容词的时候,minor也是与major相对的,表示“次要的、轻微的、小的”,比如,She played a number of minor roles in films.(她在电影里扮演过一些小角色。)

英语中关于“青少年犯罪”有一个固定的说法juvenile delinquency/juvenile offending,juvenile指“未成年、青少年”,也可以形容某人“孩子气的、幼稚的”。Delinquency这个词指“违法行为”,尤指青少年的违法行为,实施违法行为的青少年就可以称为delinquent。

白皮书通过对近年来涉未成年人刑事案件情况进行分析指出,当前未成年人犯罪总体形势趋稳向好,未成年人涉嫌严重暴力犯罪(serious violent crimes)和毒品犯罪(drug crimes)、校园欺凌(school bullying)和暴力犯罪、14至16周岁未成年人犯罪( crimes committed by minors between the ages of 14 to 16 )数量逐步减少,未成年人重新犯罪率整体平稳。但未成年人犯罪数量有所回升,未成年人聚众斗殴(brawl)、寻衅滋事(affray)、强奸(rape)犯罪人数上升;同时,性侵害(sexual abuse)、暴力伤害未成年人(violence against minors),成年人拉拢、诱迫未成年人参与黑恶犯罪(adults inducing minors to participate in gang crimes)等问题相对突出。

From 2014 to 2019, procuratorial organs investigated and arrested 284,569 juvenile suspects, of which nearly 88,953 were dismissed after investigations.

2014年至2019年,全国检察机关共受理审查逮捕未成年犯罪嫌疑人284569人,经审查,不批准逮捕88953人。

据介绍,最高检工作规划已明确要探索建立包括临界预防、保护处分、家庭教育在内的罪错未成年人分级处遇制度(a hierarchical intervention system for delinquent minors)。

日前,最高检、公安部等9部门会签下发了《关于建立侵害未成年人案件强制报告制度的意见(试行)》。《意见》规定了性侵(sexual assault)、虐待(abuse)、欺凌(bullying)、遗弃(abandonment)、拐卖(trafficking)等九类应当报告的情形,报告责任主体向公安机关报案或举报的,应按照主管行政机关要求报告备案。

武汉集中核酸检测 mass nucleic acid testing

湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部6月2日下午召开新闻发布会,介绍武汉市集中核酸检测排查工作情况。

Lu Zuxun, a public health professor at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, said from May 14 to June 1, the city conducted nucleic acid tests on 9,899,828 residents and reported 300 asymptomatic cases who show no clear symptoms despite carrying the virus. No confirmed COVID-19 cases were found in the process, and all the 1,174 people in close contact have tested negative for the infection, according to Lu.

华中科技大学同济医学院公共卫生学院教授卢祖洵介绍,5月14日0时至6月1日24时,武汉市集中核酸检测9899828人,没有发现确诊病例,检出无症状感染者300名,追踪密切接触者1174名,其核酸检测结果均为阴性。

武汉市委常委、常务副市长胡亚波说,本次集中核酸检测费用由政府承担,通过集中采购降低成本,总支出大约9亿元。

"The physical lockdown on the city was lifted on April 8, and after the testing campaign was finished, the psychological lockdown on Wuhan people, who have made great sacrifices fighting the epidemic, has also been lifted," he said.

4月8日,武汉实现了物理意义上的解封,集中核酸检测排查后,“封城”期间作出巨大牺牲的武汉人民实现了心理上的解封。

The mass testing has helped reassure people in Wuhan and other regions in the country and will accelerate the city's efforts to restore its social and economic development.

通过这次筛查,换来了全国人民的放心、武汉人民的安心,必将推动城市经济社会发展尽快步入正轨。

如何在十多天内完成近千万人核酸检测

武汉市卫生健康委员会副主任王卫华介绍说,武汉市通过3个途径,将日检测能力从30万人份快速突破100万人份。

一是挖掘内部潜力。

By adding 40 medical institutions and disease control centers to conduct the tests, the city had 63 institutions analyze the test samples, which significantly increased the city's testing capacity.

武汉动员了40家医疗机构和疾控中心共同参与,这样全市检测机构增加到63家,大大提升了核酸日检测能力。

二是调集全国资源。

These institutions also mobilized staff and equipment from around the country, with staff members increasing from 419 to 1,451 and testing equipment increasing from 215 pieces to 701.

武汉市各检测机构在全国范围内调集人员、增添设备,检测工作人员从419人增加到1451人,设备从215台套增加到701台套。

三是采用科学的方法。

Batch testing, which mixes no more than five samples in a single test, was employed to improve efficiency.

混检单次不超过5个样本合并检测,这样在短时间内提升了检测效率。

武汉市通过这三个途径,将日检测能力从30万人份快速突破100万人份(daily testing capability increased from 300,000 to more than 1 million)。

国家自主贡献 nationally determined contributions

生态环境部新闻发言人刘友宾6月2日指出,在常态化疫情防控前提下,生态环境部门将努力克服新冠肺炎疫情带来的不利影响,扎实推进生态环境治理各项工作。

China will fully implement its commitment to nationally determined contributions (NDCs) on climate change under the Paris climate agreement despite the coronavirus outbreak, according to the Ministry of Ecology and Environment.

生态环境部表示,我国将克服新冠肺炎疫情影响,坚决完成《巴黎气候协定》中承诺的气候变化国家自主贡献目标。

【知识点】

国家自主贡献(nationally determined contributions)指根据《联合国气候变化框架公约(the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)》缔约方会议相关决定,提出的中国应对气候变化的强化行动和措施(enhanced actions and measures on climate change)。

中国在2009年提出的应对气候变化行动目标是:

By 2020 it will lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% from the 2005 level, increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to about 15% and increase the forested area by 40 million hectares and the forest stock volume by 1.3 billion cubic meters compared to the 2005 levels.

到2020年单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2005年下降40%-45%,非化石能源占一次能源消费比重达到15%左右,森林面积比2005年增加4000万公顷,森林蓄积量比2005年增加13亿立方米。

到2030年的自主行动目标:

To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early;

二氧化碳排放2030年左右达到峰值并争取尽早达峰;

To lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level;

单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2005年下降60%-65%;

To increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20%;

非化石能源占一次能源消费比重达到20%左右;

To increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level.

森林蓄积量比2005年增加45亿立方米左右。

生态环境部新闻发言人刘友宾表示:

China’s carbon emission reduction will not change with the occurrence of the epidemic and China would “100%” fulfil its NDC commitment.

中国的碳减排行动不会因为疫情而改变,会百分百履行国家自主贡献承诺。

生态环境部近日发布的报告显示,

Air quality in the country continued to improve, with 337 cities at and above the prefecture-level recording good air quality on an average of 82 percent days last year.

2019年,我国空气质量持续改善,全国337个地级及以上城市优良天数平均达到82%。

Carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP fell 4.1 percent in 2019 from the previous year, meeting the country's annual target.

2019年单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放同比下降4.1%,完成年度预期目标。

航班熔断机制 "circuit breaker" mechanism for airlines

中国民用航空局6月4日发布关于调整国际客运航班的通知。自2020年6月8日起,实施航班奖励和熔断措施。

The Civil Aviation Administration of China, along with multiple departments including the National Health Commission and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, will introduce a "reward" and "circuit breaker" mechanism for airlines based on passenger nucleic acid test results upon arrival in order to contain the number of imported cases of COVID-19.

民航局与国家卫健委以及外交部等多部门将推出以落地后乘客核酸检测结果为依据的航班奖励和熔断机制,以控制新冠肺炎输入病例。

As an incentive, carriers will be allowed to increase the number of international flights to two per week on one route if the number of passengers who have a positive nucleic acid test on their flights stands at zero for three consecutive weeks, according to the administration.

奖励措施是指航空公司同一航线航班,入境后核酸检测结果为阳性的旅客人数连续3周为零的,可在航线经营许可规定的航班量范围内增加每周1班,达到每周2班。

The airline must suspend the operation of the route for one week if the number of passengers who test positive for the coronavirus reaches five. If the number exceeds 10, the airline will suspend the flights for four weeks, it said.

航空公司同一航线航班,入境后核酸检测结果为阳性的旅客人数达到5个的,暂停该公司该航线运行1周;达到10个的,暂停该公司该航线运行4周。

国际客运航班调整后,预计目前保持通航的23个国家44个航空公司每周最多增加航班44班。按照3月26日以来每周实际执行率75%测算,每周航班实际增加50班(add 50 international flights);预计每周航空口岸入境人数约33000人,平均每日入境人数(the average number of daily inbound passengers)约4700人。

根据通知,已列入民航局3月12日发布的“国际航班信息发布(第5期)”航班计划的中外航空公司将继续按照以下原则执行自/至中国的国际客运航班:

国内每家航空公司经营至任一国家的航线只能保留1条,每条航线每周运营班次不得超过1班(domestic carriers can fly just one flight a week on one route to any country);外国每家航空公司经营至我国的航线只能保留1条(operate only one inbound route),每周运营班次不得超过1班。

Overseas airlines that currently cannot operate flights to China will be permitted once-per-week flights into one of 37 port cities of their choosing starting on Monday.

自2020年6月8日起,此前不能经营至我国航线的外国航空公司可以从37个中国口岸城市中选择1个具备接收能力的城市,每周运营1班国际客运航线航班。

中新“快捷通道” China-Singapore fast lane

Starting Monday, people from Singapore and six Chinese municipalities and provinces can make essential business or official trips without having to go through the required 14-day quarantine period.

从6月8日起,新加坡和中国6个省市的人员可以进行必要的商务和公务往来,无需完成此前要求的14天隔离。

根据外交部发言人赵立坚介绍,

中新“快捷通道( China-Singapore fast lane)”是指:双方有需要的商务和公务人员(business and official travelers)可通过对方负责接待的企业和政府机构提出申请(applications submitted by the companies or government departments to receive them in the destination country),经主管部门审批同意后,有关人员可按规定申请签证,经离境前健康监测和入境后检疫检测合格,可以缩短入境后的隔离时间,其后按闭环原则全程接受有效管理(their whole stay in the destination country will be effectively managed, forming a closed loop to ensure safety)。

The first phase of the China-Singapore fast lane will be implemented between Singapore and six Chinese provinces (municipalities) including Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangdong. The two sides will gradually expand the implementation scope and discuss the gradual resumption of commercial flights between the two countries, depending on the circumstances.

中新“快捷通道”第一阶段在中国上海、天津、重庆、江苏、浙江、广东等6省(市)同新加坡之间实施,双方将视情逐步扩大通道适用范围,并探讨逐步恢复两国间商业航班。

新加坡是第二个与中国建立“快捷通道”的亚洲国家。中韩两国“快捷通道”已于5月1日正式开通。

The "fast track" arrangement between China and the ROK was applicable to ten Chinese provinces and cities at the beginning. ROK travelers can apply for visa after applications submitted by their companies are approved. After passing through health-screening and quarantine procedures, they will be quarantined for a shorter period of time in China, and their whole stay in China will be effectively managed, forming a closed loop to ensure safety.

中方首批有十个省市适用“快捷通道”办法,有需要的韩方企业需要提出申请并经审批同意。此后,相关韩方人员可以按规定申请来华签证,经过健康监测、检疫检测合格,可以缩短入境后的隔离时间,其后总体按闭环原则全程接受有效管理。

Chinese travelers to the ROK who wish to use the "fast track" need to apply for exemption from quarantine when applying for visa from the ROK embassy or consulates in China. If they meet the conditions for approval of the ROK side and test negative for the coronavirus before departing for and after arriving in the ROK, they will be exempted from quarantine and accept flexible epidemic prevention management of the ROK side.

希望适用“快捷通道”的中方人员须向韩国驻华使领馆申办签证同时申请免除隔离,如符合韩方审批条件且出境前、入境后检疫检测合格,可以免除隔离,接受韩方动态防疫管理。

外交部发言人表示:

At present, the fast lane between China and the ROK has been implemented smoothly and yielding good results. The implementation of the fast lane between China and Singapore is on the way, and I believe it will achieve the desired goals. We are also ready to continue to explore similar arrangements with other countries. While doing a good job in epidemic prevention and control, we are also committed to resuming necessary people-to-people exchanges, providing support for the resumption of work and production as well as deeper cooperation in both countries, and contributing to the economic and social recovery and development of the region and the world at large.

目前,中韩“快捷通道”顺利实施,效果良好。中新“快捷通道”实施在即,相信也会达到预期效果。我们也愿继续同各国探讨类似安排,在做好疫情防控的同时致力于恢复必要人员往来,为各自国家复工复产、深化彼此合作提供支持,为地区和世界经济社会的恢复和发展提供助力。

重点人群 key population groups

国务院联防联控机制综合组6月8日公布了《关于加快推进新冠病毒核酸检测的实施意见》。

China will continue to make nucleic acid testing compulsory among all key groups and available for those who ask to be tested, according to the guideline.

意见明确,我国核酸检测将对重点人群“应检尽检”,其他人群“愿检尽检”。

重点人群包括:

close contact with COVID-19 cases

密切接触者

inbound travelers

境外入境人员

patients in fever clinics

发热门诊患者

new inpatients and their caregivers

新住院患者及陪护人员

staff working at medical institutions

医疗机构工作人员

quarantine and inspection staff at ports and borders

口岸检疫和边防检查人员

staff working at prisons and detention houses

监所工作人员

nursing home workers

社会福利养老机构工作人员

意见明确提出,提升检测能力(boost testing capacity),尽力扩大检测范围(expand the scope of testing)。意见还提出各地要加强公众监测预警,定期进行人群抽样检测(conduct spot-checks),掌握当地疫情发展变化,为动态调整常态化防控措施提供依据。

意见特别强调,各地要加强三级医院、传染病专科医院(infectious disease hospitals)、县(区)级及以上疾控机构(disease control and prevention institutions at county-level or above)、海关及有条件的县医院实验室建设,使其具备开展新冠病毒检测能力(enable them to conduct nucleic acid testing)。

留学预警 alert for overseas study

教育部6月9日发布2020年第1号留学预警,提醒谨慎选择赴澳或返澳学习。

预警指出,

Major Australian universities plan to resume classes in July, yet the COVID-19 pandemic has not been properly contained globally and there are still risks concerning international travel and opening schools, the ministry said.

澳大利亚主要高校计划于7月前后陆续开学。全球新冠肺炎疫情扩散蔓延势头没有得到有效控制,国际旅行和开放校园存在风险。

There have been also incidents of discrimination against Asians in Australia, it said.

疫情期间,澳大利亚发生多起针对亚裔的歧视性事件。

The ministry suggested that students and scholars should take a more prudent approach toward studying in the country, it added.

教育部提醒广大留学人员谨慎选择赴澳或返澳学习。

【单词讲解】

Prudent这个词经常表示“谨慎的,小心的”或者“稳重的,精明的”等意思,比如在《政府工作报告》中常见的“稳健的货币政策”就是prudent monetary policy,投资市场中“谨慎的投资者”是prudent investor,职场前辈给后辈的“中肯建议”是prudent advice。

文化和旅游部6月5日晚间发布公告,提醒我国游客切实提高安全防范意识,切勿前往澳大利亚旅游。

公告称,

The ministry warned Chinese people not to travel to Australia, as the country has seen a significant increase in racial discrimination and violence against Chinese and other Asian people due to the pandemic.

近期,由于受到新冠肺炎疫情影响,澳大利亚国内对华人和亚裔的种族歧视言行和暴力行为现象明显上升。文化和旅游部提醒中国游客切勿前往澳大利亚旅游。

外交部发言人华春莹在6月8日的例行发布会上表示,中方有关部门发布赴澳旅行提醒当然有充分事实依据。

她表示:

For a while, there have been many discrimination cases against China, Chinese and even Asians in Australia, which were also reported by Australian media.

过去一段时间来,澳国内针对中国、华人乃至亚裔的歧视现象层出不穷,澳媒体上有大量报道。

For example, some Australian politicians and media called the novel coronavirus "China virus" and viciously altered some elements on China's national flag and emblem. Many Chinese in Australia were insulted or even attacked. Some Chinese and Asian families' properties were vandalized. Chinese and Asians encountered unjust treatment at workplace.

比如,一些澳政客和媒体将新冠病毒称为“中国病毒”,恶毒篡改中国国旗、国徽图案;很多在澳华人华侨遭受言语侮辱甚至围攻伤害;一些华人和亚裔家庭财产遭到破坏,华人和亚裔在日常工作中遭受不公正待遇。

In Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and other Australian cities there has been racist graffiti against Chinese. According to statistics collected by Australian Human Rights Commission, in the first quarter this year, hundreds of Asians filed complaints for racial discrimination, accounting for 25 percent of the total.

悉尼、墨尔本、布里斯班、珀斯等多个澳城市出现带有对华种族歧视意涵的涂鸦或文字。根据澳大利亚人权委员会统计,今年第一季度已有数百名亚裔投诉遭受种族歧视,种族歧视投诉占比高达25%。

Australian Broadcasting Corporation reported that within one week in April, three racist attacks targeting Chinese families took place in Australia. From January to April, the state of New South Wales received 241 complaints for racial discrimination, while the number is 22 from March to the beginning of May in the state of Queensland.

据澳大利亚广播公司报道,4月一周内就发生3起针对华人家庭的种族主义袭击。新南威尔士州今年1到4月收到241起种族歧视投诉,昆士兰州警方3月到5月初收到22起种族歧视报案。

The Chinese government has been responsible in reminding Chinese citizens to make proper travel plans and protect themselves from harm. We also advise the Australian side to pay attention to the problems and take concrete measures to protect the security, rights and interests of Chinese nationals in Australia.

中国政府一向本着负责任的态度,提醒中国公民妥善安排出行计划,做好自身安全防护。我们也奉劝澳大利亚方面正视问题,采取切实措施维护和保障在澳中国公民的安全和权益。

强降雨 torrential downpours

据水利部门监测,受降雨影响,广西、广东、福建、浙江、江西、湖南、贵州、云南共计8省(区)110条河流发生超警以上洪水。

More than 20 people were killed or remain missing after torrential downpours unleashed floods in South China. The rain-triggered floods had affected some 2.63 million people in 11 provincial-level regions as of 2 pm Tuesday, the Ministry of Emergency Management said. The heavy rain forced the relocation of about 228,000 people, destroyed over 1,300 houses and brought direct economic losses of over 4 billion yuan (about $566 million), the ministry said.

强降雨引发的华南地区洪水已经导致20多人死亡或失踪。应急管理部表示,截至6月9日14时,降雨导致的洪涝灾害已造成11省(区、市)近263万人次受灾,22.8万人次紧急转移安置;1300余间房屋倒塌;直接经济损失超过40亿元。

【单词讲解】

在英文报道中,讲到“降雨”时通常会出现rain、drizzle、downpour、shower等词汇。其中,rain是“雨”的总称,我们通过在这个词的前面添加不同的形容词来表示不同程度的降雨,比如:heavy rain(大雨)、light rain(小雨)、中雨(moderate rain)、暴雨(torrential rain)、大暴雨(downpour)、特大暴雨(heavy downpour)。

广西

In Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region in South China, six people were killed and one is missing after days of downpours.

广西壮族自治区连日降雨导致6人死亡,1人失踪。

Over 1 million people have been affected by the floods, including 147,900 who were relocated to safe areas, the regional flood control and drought relief headquarters said Tuesday.

当地防汛抗旱总指挥部表示,受灾人数超过100万,有14万7900人被转移到安全地带。

湖南

In central Hunan province, seven people had been killed and one remained missing as of Tuesday.

截至6月9日,湖南中部已有7人死亡,1人失踪。

Authorities said 321,000 people were affected in 21 counties and cities of Hunan, and 11,000 residents were relocated and received assistance.

当地政府表示,湖南共有21个县市的32.1万人受灾,1.1万人被转移救助。

贵州

In Guizhou province in Southwest China, intense rain has left eight people missing or dead, the local emergency response department said, adding that 2,800 people were relocated.

贵州应急管理部门表示,强降雨已导致当地8人死亡或失踪,2800人被转移安置。

The rain and flooding also damaged 10,700 hectares of crops and damaged more than 2,800 houses in the mountainous province, according to the department.

降雨及洪水破坏农田1.07万公顷,损毁房屋2800多间。

广东

In south China's Guangdong province, over 20,000 people were relocated following heavy rains, the local emergency management department said Tuesday, adding that hundreds of tents, as well as clothes, bottled water and food, have been delivered to the hard-hit cities of Zhaoqing and Qingyuan.

广东省应急管理部门表示,受强降雨影响,当地已有超过2万人被转移安置,数百顶帐篷、衣物、瓶装水以及食物等物资已运抵受灾最严重的肇庆和清远。

中央气象台6月10日继续发布暴雨蓝色预警

From Wednesday night to Thursday night, heavy rain and rainstorms are expected in some parts of Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Chongqing, Guizhou, Guangxi and Heilongjiang, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) said.

中央气象台表示,6月10日晚至6月11日晚,湖北、湖南、江西、浙江、福建、重庆、贵州、广西及黑龙江部分地区将有大雨或暴雨。

【知识点】

气象部门发布的暴雨预警一共有四个级别,由低到高分别是:蓝色、黄色、橙色和红色。

蓝色预警(blue alert)

标准:12小时内降雨量将达50毫米以上,或者已达50毫米以上且降雨可能持续。

黄色预警(yellow alert)

标准:6小时内降雨量将达50毫米以上,或者已达50毫米以上且降雨可能持续。

橙色预警(orange alert)

标准:3小时内降雨量将达50毫米以上,或者已达50毫米以上且降雨可能持续。

红色预警(red alert)

标准:3小时内降雨量将达100毫米以上,或者已达到100毫米以上且降雨可能持续。

国歌条例 National Anthem Ordinance

香港特区行政长官林郑月娥6月11日根据《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法》第四十八条第三款,签署经特区立法会通过的《国歌条例》。《国歌条例》于6月12日刊宪公布,之后即时正式生效。

The National Anthem Ordinance provides for the playing and singing, protection and promotion of the national anthem to preserve the dignity of the country, enhance the sense of national identity among citizens and promote patriotism.

《国歌条例》为奏唱、保护及推广国歌订定条文,以维护国家的尊严,增强公民的国家观念,弘扬爱国精神。

The offences stipulated in the Ordinance only concern the misuse of the national anthem, or public and intentional acts with an intent to insult the national anthem.

《国歌条例》所订明的罪行只涉及不当使用国歌,或公开、故意、意图侮辱国歌的行为。

【单词讲解】

在法律用语中,ordinance多指地方性法规(a law, usually one made by a city or regional government);regulation则多指行政机关或公司等组织机构制定的规章或者规定,比如,safety regulations,corporate regulations等。

第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会在2017年9月1日通过《中华人民共和国国歌法》(《国歌法》),并于同年11月4日将《国歌法》列入香港基本法附件三。

In accordance with Article 18 of the Basic Law, the national laws listed in Annex III to the Basic Law shall be applied locally by way of promulgation or legislation by the HKSAR.

根据香港《基本法》第十八条的规定,凡列于香港基本法附件三的全国性法律,由香港特别行政区在当地公布或立法实施。

林郑月娥表示,

Like the national flag and the national emblem, the national anthem is the symbol and sign of the nation. As an inalienable part of the People's Republic of China, the HKSAR is duty-bound to preserve the dignity of the national anthem through legislation.

国歌与国旗、国徽一样,是国家的象征和标志。香港特别行政区作为国家不可分离的部分,立法维护国歌的尊严,是特区应有之义。

I hope that members of the public will respect the national anthem of their own volition, hence the promotion of the national anthem is of paramount importance. To let our next generation understand the history and spirit of the national anthem and to observe the etiquette for the playing and singing of the national anthem, the Education Bureau will update its learning and teaching resources and issue directions to schools through circulars to support schools in teaching students.

期望香港市民自觉尊重国歌,因此推广国歌的工作至为重要。为了让下一代了解国歌的历史和精神,以及遵守国歌奏唱的礼仪,特区政府教育局会更新学与教资源,并以通告形式向学校发出指示,支援学校教导学生。

本土疫情 domestically transmitted COVID-19 cases

6月13日凌晨,北京新发地批发市场董事长张玉玺表示:“相关部门抽检时从切割进口三文鱼的案板中检测到了新冠病毒,而该产品的货源来自京深海鲜市场。”

据报道,受该消息影响,北京的主要商超企业昨日都已连夜下架全部三文鱼。

Experts said it is extremely unlikely for seafood like salmon to be the carrier of the novel coronavirus, which was found on cutting boards for imported salmon at Beijing's Xinfadi wholesale market.

北京新发地批发市场切三文鱼的案板中检测到了新冠病毒,专家表示,像三文鱼之类的海鲜不太可能成为新冠病毒的载体。

中国疾病预防控制中心流行病学首席专家吴尊友表示,

Fish in their natural habitat cannot catch coronavirus, however, they can be contaminated by workers during capture or transportation.

鱼类在其自然栖息地不会带新冠病毒,不过在捕捞或运输过程中可能被工作人员污染。

Our seafood products are typically stored and transported in cold containers, thus it is possible for the virus to be preserved for a long time and increase the likelihood of infecting people.

很多海产品都是冷冻储存,在这样的环境下,病毒能够存活很长时间,传染人的几率也更大。

他认为,据既往的知识和经验初步判断,北京突然出现本土新冠疫情,有两种可能性:

The first may be the influx of meat and seafood to the market from all over the country and around the world. Some of it may have been contaminated by infected workers during processing and transportation, then the virus jumped from produce to people.

第一种可能,批发市场里被新冠病毒污染的海产品或肉类是源头。批发市场很多海产品、肉类等都是外地输入的,包括海外进口。新冠病毒感染者在处理和运输这些产品时可能会造成污染,从而导致经手处理的员工感染病毒。

The second possibility is person-to-person transmission. "The infected person who brought the virus into the market might be asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms, and the hustle and bustle of the market led to the cluster of new infections," he said.

第二种可能是人传人。他可能是一个从其他疫源地过来的人,被感染之后没有症状或症状很轻,此后对新发地批发市场造成了污染,导致了疫情的集聚。

国家卫健委高级别专家组成员、中国疾控中心流行病学前首席科学家曾光表示,

Based on preliminary analysis of the two early cases, the coronavirus strain in the latest outbreak is different from the ones found in China, and early data suggest it is a mutated variety from Europe.

根据对两个病例样本的初步分析,此次发病的病毒毒株不像是国内流行的类型,初步数据显示,可能是从欧洲方向来的变异类型。

However, people should take this finding with a grain of salt as more testing is being conducted to confirm the origin of virus.

不过,人们对这个结论也不可轻信,确认病毒来源还需进行更多检测。

新的疫情发生后,北京市迅速采取了应对措施。

All personnel in the Xinfadi market and nearby residents will receive nucleic acid tests and be put under medical observation. Those who have had close contact with workers at the market since May 30 should take the initiative to report to their employers and communities, and go through testing.

新发地市场所有工作人员及周边居民都将接受核酸检测及医学观察。5月30日以来与该市场工作人员有过接触的人员应主动向单位和社区报备,并接受核酸检测。

From 3 am on Saturday, the market has been shut down for probes into its contamination and infection risk, as well as cleaning and disinfection.

6月13日凌晨3时起,新发地市场闭市进行病毒感染风险调查以及消杀。

Eleven residential areas nearby are now closed to nonresidents, and several primary schools and kindergartens near the market are suspended.

周边11个居民小区封闭管理,小学和幼儿园停课。

Five suspended trade fairs have been disinfected and 252 agricultural product markets that are in operation are urged to conduct disinfection on a daily basis.

五个休市的交易市场进行消杀,另外252个还在营业的农产品交易市场要求每天进行消毒。

All hospitals were required to perform nucleic acid and antibody tests, a CT scan and a routine blood test on patients with a fever.

要求所有医院对发热病人进行核算检测、抗体检测、CT以及血常规检查。

抗疫特别国债 special government bonds for covid-19 control

为筹集财政资金,统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展,财政部决定发行2020年抗疫特别国债(一、二期),两期国债竞争性招标面值总额合计1000亿元。

财政部发布的公告指出,

The Ministry of Finance will issue two batches of fixed-rate special bonds, including 50 billion yuan of five-year bonds and 50 billion yuan of seven-year bonds. Both will be listed and traded on June 23, 2020.

在这两期特别国债中,一期为5年期固定利率附息债,二期为7年期固定利率附息债。两期国债竞争性招标面值总额均为500亿元,6月23日起上市交易。

【知识点】

国债(government bonds/treasury bonds)是由国家发行的债券(government debt securities issued by the central government),是中央政府为筹集财政资金而发行的一种政府债券,是中央政府向投资者出具的、承诺在一定时期支付利息(pay periodic interest)和到期偿还本金(pay a par amount equal to the principal at maturity)的债权债务凭证,由于国债的发行主体是国家,所以它具有最高的信用度,被公认为是最安全的投资工具。

我国的国债由财政部代表中央政府发行,除因为一些特殊项目而发行的特别国债外,常见的普通国债一般分为凭证式国债(certificated treasury bonds)和记账式国债(book-entry treasury bonds)。

今年的《政府工作报告》提出:

The deficit-to-GDP ratio this year is projected at more than 3.6 percent, with a deficit increase of one trillion yuan over last year. On top of this, one trillion yuan of government bonds for covid-19 control will also be issued. These are extraordinary measures for an unusual time.

今年赤字率拟按3.6%以上安排,财政赤字规模比去年增加1万亿元,同时发行1万亿元抗疫特别国债。这是特殊时期的特殊举措。

The aforementioned two trillion yuan will be transferred in full to local governments; a special transfer payment mechanism will be set up to ensure that funds go straight to prefecture and county governments and directly benefit businesses and people. These funds should be primarily used to ensure employment, meet basic living needs, and protect market entities. This includes giving support to cut taxes and fees, reduce rents and interest on loans, and increase consumption and investment. It is important to stress that government funds are public in nature and that no such funds are allowed to be withheld or diverted for non-designated uses.

上述2万亿元全部转给地方,建立特殊转移支付机制,资金直达市县基层、直接惠企利民,主要用于保就业、保基本民生、保市场主体,包括支持减税降费、减租降息、扩大消费和投资等,强化公共财政属性,决不允许截留挪用。

财政部副部长许宏才日前公开表示,抗疫特别国债主要用于有一定的资产收益保障的公共卫生等基础设施建设和抗疫的相关支出(infrastructure construction related to COVID-19 control),包括支持小微企业发展(support the development of small and micro enterprises)、财政贴息、减免租金补贴(provide fiscal and rent subsidies)等。

应急响应级别 the emergency response level

在6月16日晚间召开的北京市新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控工作新闻发布会上,北京市人民政府副秘书长陈蓓表示,经北京新冠肺炎疫情防控工作领导小组研究,按程序报批后,确定自6月16日起北京市突发公共卫生应急响应级别由三级调至二级(upgraded the emergency response to COVID-19 from level III to II)。

北京市应急响应级别由三级调至二级后,将坚持“九严格”措施,包括严格社区封闭式管理(closed-off management)和健康监测(health monitoring);严格公共交通体温检测和公共场所测温验码等措施;严格进出京管控等。

People entering the city from overseas will be put under medical observation at designated places, and undergo nucleic acid tests.

境外入京人员全部集中观察和核酸检测。

Those from the medium- and high-risk neighborhoods and relevant people from the Xinfadi farm produce market, where most of the new confirmed cases are related, are not allowed to leave Beijing.

中高风险街乡、新发地市场相关人员禁止离京。

Classes are moved online for primary and middle school students, and class resumption of college students will be suspended.

恢复中小学各年级线上教学,高校学生停止返校。

The capital city demands certain team sports such as basketball, football and volleyball, to come to a halt.

停止开放篮球、排球、足球等团体性及对抗性运动项目。

Venues of cultural entertainment, swimming pools and gyms will remain closed.

关闭文化娱乐场所和地下空间体育健身场所、游泳馆等。

Interprovincial group tours will be suspended.

停止开放境内跨省区团队旅游业务。

Beijing will strictly enforce epidemic prevention measures in farmers' markets, restaurants, and canteens, and strengthen monitoring. Employees in those places must wear masks and gloves.

将对农贸市场、餐馆、食堂等采取严格的防控举措,加强监控。上述场所工作人员须佩戴口罩和手套。

The Chinese capital reported 106 domestically transmitted COVID-19 cases from June 11 to 15. Beijing has listed 27 neighborhoods as medium-risk zones, and one high-risk neighborhood.

6月11日至15日,北京市已报告106例本土传播病例,27个社区被列为中风险地区,1个社区为高风险地区。

出行管控 travel restrictions

为防止疫情风险扩散,北京严禁三类涉疫风险人员出京,并严格中高低风险地区进(返)京人员管控。

Beijing will carry out strict travel restrictions to curb the spread of COVID-19 and people at high risk are forbidden to leave the city, Pan Xuhong, deputy director of the Beijing Municipal Public Security Bureau, said at a news conference on Thursday morning.

北京市公安局副局长潘绪宏6月18日上午表示,为防止疫情风险扩散,北京市将采取严格的出行限制措施。

北京严禁三类涉疫风险人员出京,并严格中高低风险地区进(返)京人员管控。

三类人员具体包括:

The first category includes confirmed COVID-19 patients, suspected cases, close contacts, asymptomatic carriers and people with fever.

一是全市确诊病例、疑似病例、密切接触者、无症状感染者和有发热症状人员。

The second covers those who have visited Xinfadi wholesale farm-produce market or had close contact with relevant staff since May 30.

二是5月30日以来进出新发地批发市场和与市场工作人员有过密切接触的人员。

The third includes people living in medium- and high-risk areas.

三是中高风险地区人员。

Other personnel should avoid unessential travels outside Beijing, Pan said, adding that a negative nucleic-acid test certificate issued within the past seven days is a must for those who really need to leave the city.

全市其他人员原则上坚持“非必要不出京”,确需离京的,须持7日内核酸检测阴性证明。

同时,民航、铁路部门对全市确诊病例(confirmed cases)、疑似病例(suspected cases)、密切接触者(close contacts)、无症状感染者(asymptomatic carriers),以及5月30日以来进出新发地批发市场和与市场工作人员有过密切接触的人员,实行购票限制(impose restrictions on the purchase of tickets)。

The civil aviation and railway sectors will check temperatures and the negative nucleic acid test reports of outbound passengers before boarding.

民航、铁路部门对出京人员登机、登车前进行体温检测,查验核酸检测阴性证明。

All interprovincal bus lines operated by Beijing's carriers will be suspended starting from June 19.

6月19日起,北京市所有省际客运站运营的省际客运班线全部停运。

日环食 annular solar eclipse

今年6月21日是夏至(summer solstice),当日下午,一场十年一遇的“金边日环食”也震撼登场。

People in quite a few places in China witnessed on Sunday the most anticipated celestial event of the year, an annular solar eclipse.The entire eclipse lasted about three and a half hours, but its duration as it passed over individual locations was equal to around 90 seconds.

6月21日,我国多地民众观赏到了最受期待的年度天文盛景“日环食”。整个“日环食”持续近三个半小时,不过在单个地点的持续时间约90秒。

【知识点】

日环食(annular solar eclipse)是日食(solar eclipse)的一种,发生时太阳的中心部分黑暗,边缘仍然明亮,形成光环。这是因为月球在太阳和地球之间,但是距离地球较远,不能完全遮住太阳而形成的(not close to the Earth enough to completely obscure the sun)。随着月球位置的移动,我们能观测到的日食还有日全食(total solar eclipse)和日偏食(partial solar eclipse)。

Solar源于希腊语,指“of,relating to,or proceeding from the sun”(和太阳有关的或从太阳发出的),其相关的表达如:solar calendar(阳历),solar heating system(太阳能加热系统)等。

再介绍一下eclipse,由于它指代“天体的部分或全部受其它天体的遮掩而变得晦暗”,我们可以将其引申为“使黯然失色”,用在英语写作或口语表达上会增色不少。

作名词时,常用的搭配是in eclipse,如Fred was in eclipse, exiled to a small post in the south.(弗雷德失势了,被打发到南方去担任一个小差使。)作动词时常见be eclipsed by搭配,如:She is quite eclipsed by her clever younger sister.(在聪明的妹妹面前,她变得黯然失色。)

The annular eclipse crossed a path that started at sunrise in Africa and eventually moved across to China before ending at sunset over the Pacific Ocean.

此次日环食在日出时分出现在非洲,经过中国,最终在日落时分到达太平洋上空。

In China, it was visible in central areas of the Tibet autonomous region and Sichuan province, northern areas of Guizhou province, central areas of Hunan province, southwestern regions of Jiangxi province, southern Fujian province and central areas of Taiwan.

我国境内观测到日环食的地区有西藏、四川、贵州北部、湖南中部、江西西南部、福建南部、以及台湾中部地区。

天文学家表示,下一次在我国境内观赏日环食,要等到2030年6月1日。

北斗卫星导航系统 Beidou Navigation Satellite System

6月23日9时43分,我国在西昌卫星发射中心用长征三号乙运载火箭,成功发射北斗系统第五十五颗导航卫星,暨北斗三号最后一颗全球组网卫星。

The launch marked the completion of the in-orbit construction of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) , the country's largest space-based system and one of four global navigation networks, along with the United States' GPS, Russia's GLONASS and the European Union's Galileo.

此次发射标志着北斗全球卫星导航系统在轨部署完成,北斗系统是我国最大的空间导航系统,也是四个全球导航系统之一,其他三个分别为美国全球定位系统、俄罗斯格洛纳斯以及欧盟伽利略。

【知识点】

北斗卫星导航系统(Beidou Navigation Satellite System)是中国着眼于国家安全和经济社会发展需要,自主建设、独立运行的卫星导航系统(independently constructed and operated by China),是为全球用户提供全天候、全天时、高精度的定位(all-time, all-weather and high-accuracy positioning)、导航和授时服务(navigation and timing services)的国家重要空间基础设施。

中国高度重视北斗系统建设发展,自 20 世纪 80 年代开始探索适合国情的卫星导航系统发展道路,形成了“三步走”发展战略:2000 年年底,建成北斗一号系统,向中国提供服务;2012 年年底,建成北斗二号系统,向亚太地区提供服务(provide services in the Asia-Pacific region);计划 2020 年前后,建成北斗三号系统,向全球提供服务(provide global services)。2035 年前,将以北斗系统为核心,建设完善更加泛在、更加融合、更加智能的国家综合定位导航授时(positioning navigation and timing,PNT)体系。

1994年,北斗卫星导航系统启动建设。20多年间,我国在西昌卫星发射中心共组织了44次北斗发射任务,利用长征三号甲系列运载火箭,先后将4颗北斗一号试验卫星(experimental satellites)、55颗北斗二号和北斗三号组网卫星(third-generation satellites)送入预定轨道,任务成功率100%。

By now, 59 satellites, including the first four experimental ones, have been launched from Xichang on Long March 3Bs, some having since been put into retirement.

到目前为止,西昌卫星发射中心通过长征三号乙运载火箭共发射了59颗北斗卫星,其中包括四颗试验卫星,有些卫星已经退役。

There are 30 third-generation Beidou satellites in three types of orbit — 24 in medium-Earth orbits, three in inclined geosynchronous satellite orbits and three in geostationary orbits.

目前,在轨北斗三号卫星共有30颗,包括24颗中圆地球轨道卫星、3颗倾斜地球同步轨道卫星和3颗地球静止轨道卫星。

家暴人员婚姻登记查询系统 inquiry system for domestic violence prior to marriage registration

6月22日,浙江义乌市委政法委、市法院、市妇联、市公安、市民政和市数据管理中心等六部门联合下发了《关于建立涉家庭暴力人员婚姻登记可查询制度的意见(试行)》。

An inquiry system for domestic violence prior to marriage registration – the first of its kind in China – will be put into use in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, starting July 1, allowing people to check if their would-be partners have a criminal record related to beating or abusing family members.

7月1日起,我国首个涉家庭暴力人员婚姻登记查询系统将在浙江省义乌市开通,人们可以通过该系统查询未来的另一半是否有殴打或虐待家庭成员的记录。

根据意见,纳入家庭暴力注册簿登记范围的包括三种情况:

2017年起至今因实施家庭暴力行为被判处刑罚的人员(those who have been convicted over family violence)并实时更新;

2017年起至今因实施家庭暴力行为被人民法院裁定受人身安全保护令限制的人员(those who have been subjected to restraining orders over family violence)并实时更新;

2017年起至今因实施家庭暴力行为被公安机关处以行政拘留处罚的人员(those who have been sentenced to detention over domestic violence)并实时更新。

谁可以查询?

根据查询人申请,查询人提供本人身份证、结婚对象身份证信息(personal information about their fiances)、申请书、真实性和保密性责任书(statements that applicants are accountable for the authenticity of the materials and the confidentiality of the results)等材料,向婚姻登记处提交申请,经审核后方可查询对方是否有家庭暴力相关记录。

All application materials will be strictly reviewed by the marriage registration office before the application is approved.

婚姻登记机构对申请材料进行严格审核后予以批准。

Users can only search the database twice a year, to look at the records of at most two people.

查询注册簿一年内不超过2次,查询人数一年内不超过2人。

Those who disseminate or use the information in the database for any purposes other than their own matrimonial decisions will “bear legal consequences”.

查询结果只作为对其结婚对象是否曾有家暴行为真伪情况的参考,除此以外的传播和使用行为需承担相应法律后果。

商合杭高铁 the Shangqiu-Hefei-Hangzhou high-speed railway

6月28日8时56分,G9394次复兴号列车从合肥南站始发,驶向杭州东站。至此,商合杭高铁实现全线贯通。

With a designed speed of 350 kph, the route connects the city of Shangqiu in central China's Henan province, and Hefei and Hangzhou, the capital cities of east China's Anhui and Zhejiang provinces. The northern section of the railway, from Shangqiu to Hefei, went into operation in December 2019, according to China State Railway Group.

该线路设计时速350公里,连接河南省商丘、安徽省省会合肥,以及浙江省省会杭州。据国铁集团介绍,该线路北段,即商丘至合肥段,于去年12月正式开通运营。

商合杭高铁(the Shangqiu-Hefei-Hangzhou high-speed railway)一路衔接郑徐、合蚌、合福、合宁、宁安、宁杭和去年12月初刚通车的郑阜等7条既有高铁(existing high-speed railway),合安、湖杭、沪苏湖等3条在建高铁(high-speed railways under construction)和京港高铁阜九段、阜淮、亳蚌、淮蚌、合新、巢马、宁宣、宣绩等8条规划高速铁路和城际铁路(planned high-speed railways and inter-city railways),连接商丘、阜阳、合肥、芜湖和杭州五个铁路枢纽(railway hubs),是我国高速铁路、客运专线建设中衔接关系最为复杂的项目。通过商合杭高铁,旅客可以融入更为广阔的全国高铁网(high-speed railway network),更快到达更多目的地。

The opening of the new route will further optimize the railway network in the country’s central and eastern regions and greatly ease the mounting pressure on the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed line to provide a more convenient travel experience for passengers along the route, the company said.

该线路的贯通将进一步优化我国中东部铁路网,极大缓解京沪高铁线路的运行压力,沿线居民出行将更加便捷。

The line is also expected to spur the rise of the central region and boost the integrated regional development of the Yangtze River Delta, it added.

该线路也将对促进中部地区崛起,推动长三角区域一体化发展,具有重要意义。

义务教育 compulsory education

近日,教育部等十部门联合印发了《关于进一步加强控辍保学工作 健全义务教育有保障长效机制的若干意见》。

The completion rate of nine-year compulsory education is expected to reach 95 percent by the end of 2020, the guideline said, calling for ongoing efforts to make sure children from impoverished families have access to compulsory education.

意见提出,贫困家庭义务教育阶段适龄儿童少年不失学辍学,确保2020年全国九年义务教育巩固率达到95%。

【单词讲解】

Compulsory这个词我们都很熟悉,表示“强制的,义务的,必须做的”意思,除了表示“义务教育(compulsory education)”以外,学校里设置的“必修课”是compulsory courses,再比如,It is compulsory for all motorcyclists to wear helmets.(所有骑摩托车的人都必须戴头盔。)

意见强调,确保建档立卡贫困家庭辍学学生今年秋季学期全部应返尽返(make sure all dropouts from impoverished families return to school in the fall)。坚决防止因疫情造成新的辍学(prevent any new dropouts due to the COVID-19 pandemic)。

意见明确了切实解决因学习困难、外出打工、早婚早育、信教而辍学等问题的办法。

Education, public security, human resources and social security authorities should share information about any students who start working before age 16, and authorities should punish employers that hire those students, the guideline said.

教育部门会同公安、人力资源社会保障部门建立协作劝返机制,及时相互通报16岁以下学生外出打工信息,严厉打击使用童工违法犯罪行为。

Authorities should use various means, including persuasion, financial aid and even administrative and legal punishment of parents to encourage dropout students to return to school and prevent new dropouts, it added.

各地要利用规劝、经济援助,甚至对父母采取行政及法律处罚等多种方式做好辍学适龄儿童少年的劝返复学工作,防止造成新的辍学。

【单词讲解】

这里的dropout是名词,表示“辍学”,其动词形式为drop out,常见的搭配为drop out of school。Drop常见的短语搭配还有drop in/by(顺便拜访),比如:Drop in/by any time—we're always home.(随时来都可以,我们都在家。)如果要表明顺便拜访的对象则多用drop in on someone表示,比如:I hate to drop in on people when they aren't expecting me.(我不喜欢贸然造访别人家。)

The number of dropout students in China has nose-dived from 600,000 in early 2019 to 6,781 on June 14, thanks to the nation's poverty alleviation efforts, the guideline said.

得益于我国的脱贫攻坚战,我国的辍学学生数由2019年初的60万锐减至今年6月14日的6781。

There were only 97 students from families registered as impoverished who were not attending primary and middle schools by June, down from 200,000 in early 2019, it said.

截至6月,我国建档立卡贫困家庭辍学学生已由2019年初的20万减少至97人。

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